Charles Ewringmann Diary
27th Iowa Top Banner


This diary written in German was submitted by Ernst Ewringmann, Descendant

David Beck spent several weeks transcribing the diary. I would like to publicly give him a HUGE thank you. Without his help this would still be just paper sitting in the file cabinet.

Charles Ewringmann
Second Sergant
Comp. D 27th Regiment
Iowa Volunteer Infantry

Charles Ewringmann I had just gone out to the country to work on the harvest, when in July 1862 the call went out for 600,000 men to suppress the Rebellion. Thousands and thousands, young and old, Americans, Germans, Norwegians, Swedes, Irish, in short, people of all nations streamed to the Union flag (the sacred Red White and Blue). They were willing to sacrifice their life-blood for the sacred cause, for it meant freedom from slavery, defending right against wrong.

The war between the north and south had already raged for 1 1/2 years and the fortunes of the war had not gone to any party up to that point. The south fought desperately for their cause and the northern forces had underestimated the powers of the latter. There was still no chance that the country which had been free so long would be given freedom again.

Thousands of hopeful young people had already been in various bloody battles of the great war, falling in sacrifice and yet, from the beginning, always standing up for the cause. Therefore the President himself finally determined to call the forces mentioned previously to bring the matter to a conclusion.

The excitement in the North was great and no young man of honor dared turn back from his duty. Therefore I also decided to help in the cause of freedom by entering into the duty to which I was called. Freedom from slavery was always a hallowed subject for me of which I wanted to help and the adventurousness of the soldier's life spoke to my unbound nature.

So then on the 20th of August 1862 I found myself at Guttenberg, a small German town in Iowa on the Mississippi river, a volunteer comp. recruit. We were bound to serve for 3 years for which we would receive 2 dollars in hand, 60 dollars bounty from the county, 100 dollars bounty from the U.S. government and 13 dollars pay monthly along with clothes and food.

In the following days the company became complete and the appointment of officers was made, of which I myself, unknown as I was, was not a part of.

Chosen as Captain was a man by the name of D.E. Mayer (sic), who's business was Auctioneering, Saloonkeeping, etc. He was a German, had no education but through his businesses had much influence in the area and therefore was chosen as Captain.

First Lieutenant was a man by the name of Silas Garber, an American without influence or education but who had already entered the war in 1861 in a Missouri Regiment and soon found himself in a house on leave because of sickness. He made the people know he understood the exercises and was indispensible and so received his commission.

The 2nd Lieutenent was a Swiss by the name of John Anderegg who owned a farm and claimed to have served in the Swiss Artillary (a lie) I found out later. He was stupid and rude and in the end was put in his place.

The Orderly Sergeant was a young man of 20 years named Alexander Blieding. He was in his first year of the war. In Magdeburg he went through Primary and was very learned and capable, only somewhat childish.

The first days were just exercises but nobody had any exercise training, nor any exercise sense. So I myself took over the activities and taught good German rights and lefts, etc. We stayed in Guttenberg until September 1st and had a nice time there. It left me with pleasing memories.

We then went to Dubuque where different regiments were organized. We were stationed here about one week in boarding houses and for the rest of the time we were outside the town on standby in temporary barracks, where with 9 other Comp., the 27th Regmt. Iowa Vol. Inftry. trained. The Colonel we got was a man named J. Gilbert, he had good luck in making deals with the indians but had no military knowledge, which was how most of the American officers were in the volunteer army. Lieut. Col. was George Lake, a lawyer, and Major C. Howard, lawyer, a total pansy; he could only be a German school master. Adjutant was C. Comstock, a store clerk. Besides them we had 3 doctors and a chaplain. This was our entire regimental staff and we were now finished thus far and looked with impatience for the time to go where we should meet the rebellion. We were still missing weapons and clothes. Our company was made up of the following squads.

The following list of soldiers has been transcribed exactly from the diary including the spelling of names. Note that the names are not in strict alphabetical order. They appear to be grouped by rank first. The last 20 or so are soldiers that were recruited later in the war (grouped by 3 year enlistments and then by 1 year enlistments) Some of the entries were incomplete. (Elaine Johnson)

Nr. Rank Name Remarks
I. Capt. D. C. Mayer Resigned April 3th 1863, Jackson, Tenn
II. Lieut. Silas Garber Promoted to Capt. Apr 13th 1863, Jackson, Tenn
III. Lieut John Anderegg Promoted to 1 Lieut. Resigned April 13, 1864
1. Sergt Alex Blieding Promoted to II Lieutn. Oct. 6th 1863, Little Rock. Again 1 Lieut, Aug. 1/64 La Grange, Tenn.
2. Sergt Charles Sydow Promoted to 1. Sergt. April 14th 63 again to II Lieutn. Aug. 30th 1864
3. Sergt Charles Schecker Reduced to Ranks by order of Major Howard Mar 23 1865.
4. Sergt Charles Ewringmann Reduced to ranks by his own request. Sept 1th 1864 promoted again to II Sergt. April 1, 1865 Fort Blakely, Alabama
5. Sergt George Lang
1. Corp Ant. Bechel Promoted to 5th Sergt. April 14th 1863
2. Corp. Daniel Fritz Reduced on his own request March 7th 1864 Vicksburg, then Musician.
3. Corp Louis V. Berg Reduced on his own request Sept. 29th 1863, Little Rock.
4. Corp John F. Berggerdes
5. Corp. Joseph Garber
6. Corp. Fr. Bergmann
7. Corp. Eduard Prior Reduced on his own request March 7th 1864 Vicksburg, since then Musician.
8. Corp. Nikl. Friedlein Reduced on his own request Augst 10th 1864 Holly Springs, since then Musician.
Mus. Hugo Apfeldt
Drum Ed. Rechow
Teont. Sam Sargeant Discharged March 16th 63 Jackson Tenn.
1 Priv. Hugh Accord
2 Priv. John Ahrend Captured on Fourag duty Febr 16/64 near Canton Missp. released at the close of the war.
3 Priv. Mich. Adrian
4 Priv. David Bagby discharged at Jackson Ten. May 13/63
5 Priv. Thom. Bagby Discharged at St. Louis Miss. March 12/63
6 Priv. Conel Baxter died Moscow Ten. Aug 2/63
7 Priv. George Beck died Memphis Ten. Febr. 8/63
8 Priv. Frank Beckman wounded April 9/64 in the Bowels severely Pleasant Hill, Louis kept prisoner in Texas till Nov. 64.
9 Priv. John Beilharz
10 Priv. Mich. Berst discharged at Jackson Ten. March 29/63
11 Priv. Jabez D. Beyers Promoted to 6. Corp. March 7/64 Vicksburg Miss. wounded in the fight Dec. 16/64 Nashville Ten. since in Hosp.
12 Priv. John Bohs taken Prisoner Pleasant Hill Louis, April 9/64 released in Nov. 64, since then in Hospital.
13 Priv. John Burr Killed at Pleasant Hill April 9/65
14 Priv. Henry Bremer Transferred to the Invalid Corps July 63 Moscow
15 Priv. Diedr. Bucholz
16. Priv. Will. Buck.
17 Priv. John P. Byers Promoted 7th. Corporal California Missouri
18 Priv. Herm. Droege Wounded in the Bowels Dec. 16/64 Nashville, Ten. since in Hosp.
19 Priv. Fred Duwe Wounded on the head lightly Pleasant Hill Louis April 9/64
20 Priv. Jos. Ehs
21 Priv. John Fitsch died at Jackson, Tenn. April 10/63
22 Priv. James Flemming transferred to the Invalid Corps Aug. 63 Memphis Tenn.
23 Priv. Fred Franke promoted 5th Corp. March 7/64 Vicksburg, Miss
24 Priv. Jos. S. Garber discharged St. Louis Missouri March 12/63
25 Priv. Hezekiah Garber promoted to Corp. April 13/63 Jackson Tenn. again to 1 Serg. Sept 1/64 Memphis Tenn
26 Priv Mart. Garber
27 Priv Fred Gerbsch Promoted to Corp. Sept. 29/63 Little Rock, Ark. again III. Sergt. Sept. 13/64 Jefferson Barraks, Missouri
28 Priv. Nik. Huch
29 Priv. Henry Heiller taken Prisoner April 9/64 Pleasant Hill Louis. released Nov. 64
30 Priv. Wil. Heiller transferred to Invalid Corps July 63 Moscow
31 Priv. Wil. Heine killed at Pleasant Hill, Louis April 9/64
32 Priv. Charles Henrich wounded at Pleasant Hill, Louis in the arm severely
33 Priv. John B. Hanerts wounded at Pleasant Hill, Louis in the right arm and lower ohaw (?) discharged Memphis April 65
34 Priv. John Kirschbach discharged April 65 for disability
35 Priv. Charles Hocke detailed to Pioneer Corps June 64 returned to Comp. June 65
36 Priv. Aug. Kottke
37 Priv. Henry Kuhlmann wounded at Pleasant Hill Louis in the left arm severely April 6/64 discharged Nov. 64
38 Priv. Nik. Heinz
39 Priv. John Lemke
40 Priv. Harvey Lewis died at Cairo Illinois December 17/62
41 Priv. Beny Lockridge Transferred to Invalid Corps Sept. 13/63 Memphis Tenn.
42 Priv. Dan. P. Lockridge died at Memphis
43 Priv. Irving Mc.Donald
44 Priv. Frank Ab. Manigal detailed to
45 Priv. R. Minger
46 Priv. Theod. Muller died at Jackson
47 Priv. Herm. Mollring wounded in the
48 Priv. Aug. Much
49 Priv. Ant. Neubauer detailed as cook in Hospital at Jefferson Barracks Miss. Sept. 64
50. Priv. John H. Nieter
51 Priv. Christ. Oelker detailed as Division Teamster July 64 the Grange Miss.
52 Priv. Frank A. Otis died at Moscow Tenn. June 28/63
53 Priv. Charles Rademacher promoted to Corp. Oct. 64 California Missouri
54 Priv George Reinhard died at Little Rock Ark. Oct. 2/63
55 Priv. W. Rizer
56 Priv. Fr. Roggmann
57 Priv. Fr. Saugling
58 Priv. Fred Sass wounded in the back severely at Pleasant Hill, Louis. April 9/64 discharged June 65 Montgomery Alab.
59 Priv. Charles Schofer
60 Priv. John Schimmeck wounded in the foot severely at Pleasant Hill, Louis, April 9/64 discharged April 65 Davenport
61 Priv. Gerh. Schlacke died at Little Rock Nov 24/63
62 Priv. Henry Schlacke died at Vicksburg Miss. June 5/64
63 Priv. Herny Schorg
64 Priv Christ. Seemann discharged at St. Louis March 2/63 disability
65 Priv. Louis Stoffler detailed as Division Teamster, Jan 65 Eastport Miss
66 Priv. Fred Schurmann wounded in the hip at Pleasant Hill Louis April 9/64
67 Priv. John Tewis killed at Pleasant Hill Louis April 9/64
68 Priv. Frank Thayer discharged at Davenport Iowa March 65 disability
69 Priv. Mich. Thein promoted Corp. Oct. 9/64 California Missouri wounded in the right arm Nashville Tenn Dec. 16/64
70 Priv. Pet. Thein
71 Priv. Michael Watermann wounded severely in the right arm and side at Nashville Tenn. Dec. 16/64
72 Priv. Fred Winch wounded at Pleasant Hill Louis severely in the back April 9 the 64 discharged at St. Louis
73 Priv. Pet. Wendell wounded through the lungs severely at Old Town Creek Miss July 15/64 discharged Memphis April 65
74 Priv. John Wolff
75 Priv. Ferd. Zanter detailed as nurse in Memphis Dec. 62 returned to Camp. Jan 65 at Eastport Miss.
76 Priv. Hironi L. Cooper enlisted Jan 1864 for 3 years
77 Priv. Charles Wicke enlisted Little Rock Ark. Sept 11/63 3 years
78 Priv. Martin Newman enlisted Memphis Tenn. Jan 19/64 3 years
79 Priv. Robert Smith enlisted Memphis Jan. 19/64 3 years
80 Priv. Hugh Andrew enlisted March the 7/64 3 years taken prisoner at Pleasant Hill, Louis April 9/64 died in prison Aug. 64
81 Priv. John Hannemann enlisted March the 7/64 3 years
82 Priv. Perry C. Sprague enlisted Jan. 19/64 died Nov. 64 3 years
83 Priv. Thomas Gordon enlisted March 7/64 wounded in the thigh at Pleasant Hill Louis April 9/64 3 years
84 Priv. Aug. Parno March 7/64 3 years
85 Priv. John P. Siemer wounded in the leg and arm at Pleasant Hill Louis April 9/64 died May 64 of his wounds enlisted March 7/64 3 years
86 Priv. Gottf. Seeman enlisted March 7/64 3 years Killed at Pleasant Hill
87 Priv. Wil. Montgomery enlisted May 22/64 3 years
88 Priv. Aran Sanson enlisted May 24/64 3 years
89 Priv. Pet. Thein reenlisted Sept. 18/64 1 year discharged June 65 by reason of the close of the war
90 Priv. John Scharwath enlisted Sept. 18/64 1 year discharged Jun 65 by reason of the close of the war
91 Priv. Charles Allers enlisted Nov. 16/64 1 year detailed as musician absent in hospital since March 65
92 Priv. Ed. B. Dweyer enlisted Oct. 13/64 1 year absent in hospital since March 65
93 Priv. John L. Hall enlisted Oct 13/64 1 year
94 Priv. W. W. Rizer enlisted Oct 13/64 1 year died at Hospital New Orleans Louis April 5/65.
95 Priv. Dennis C. Quigley enlisted Jan 17/65 1 year

In Dubuque we received clumsy swords and rifles from Lieut. C. Brodbeck, a Swiss organizer and exerciser. On the 6th of October we were mustered-in to the N.S. service. We then got 6 days leave and on the 18th received our rifles and our backwages. After that we were ordered to Minnesota where indian unrest had broken out. On October 11th we boarded 2 steamboats and began our journey to St. Paul on the Mississippi River, which we reached on the 14th. We were immediately transported further to Fort Snelling, which lies about 6 miles above St. Paul where the Minnesota River meets the Mississippi River. It is a fairly sturdy fort sitting on a plateau and it is very sound.

From here Companies A B C E F G were sent at once on an expedition against the Chippewa indians. 170 miles farther North at the Mill Lake mission. 2 cannons were to be brought along and since nobody understood anything of the workings of artillary, I and a Corporal from our Company named Ant. Bechel, who had served 9 years in the French artillary, were appointed to temporary command.

On the 16th we marched off and came through a beautiful open area with good, rich farmland to Minneapolis on the Mississippi not far from the St. Anthony Falls, which were almost ruined, however previously must have been an impressive sight to see. On the second day we came to Anoka, a lovely little town on the Rum River which we followed from now on.

On the 3rd day we marched to St. Franxis and the 4th to Princetown. Up to now we had come through nice, cultivated farmland. The last towns had pole-built forts, so-called stockades, for protection against indians. Many land owners had already fled.

On the next day we went further and after 2 miles came into the deep forest at the entrance of which civilization had never seen. The last farm that we passed we heard Germans who were satisfied and happy with their lives. The forest we were in had tall, slender trees, dense growth 200 feet tall and straight as an arrow. 4 feet thickness was not rare. For a change, here and there we saw a beautiful lake with clear water and thousands of wild ducks and geese in the area. The shores were grown over with head high grass. Further on were little Tammarisk forests with their yellowish needles almost like Larch trees. Then a stag sprung up and ran past us. On the shores of the Rum river raccoons, muskrats, and so forth played amongst themselves.

We marched another 100 miles through these woods always clearing the way with axes for the artillary until on the 26th of October we came to the Mill Lake Indian camp. The indians belonged to the Chippewa tribe about 1500 heads strong. They had their wigwams on a romantic place they had cleared out. The Rum river wrapped around it then through high, dark evergreen forests and then formed Mill lake. We struck camp on an available spot and built a fire as a sign of our arrival and fired a few cannon shots which sent the savages into a frenzy. The huts of the indians were made of crossed sticks and matted rushes and tree bark was hung around it and had the shape of a sugar loaf. In the middle of every wigwam was a big fire around which the family were wrapped in old blankets and were seated with essential pipe in mouth, either thoughtfully staring into the fire or playing cards which was their greatest passion.

The Chippewa indians are tall and have a slender, well built frame with black eyes and hair and bronze complexion. The women are shorter and are servile. Many half-breeds were under them. The women kept themselves busy making moccasins and girdles as well as armbands from which beads were hung; these they offered to sell, while the men only ran around in the wild.

On the lake they had countless numbers of canoes made from animal hides, patched together with resin. They are so light that one man can easily carry several.

Most speak some French and a few of the younger ones English.

The next day our agent came with his aides from the government to make payment and the natives came in procession to our camp to show their servitude. At the front came the chief (Hole in the Day) clothed with black pants and a tailcoat with large epaulets and a Napoleon hat. He had a silver necklace with the likeness of the king of England around his neck. He was a big, bony-framed old man with almost a white complexion. Following him the various chiefs with tomahawks, old sabers and painted faces and rings in their noses and ears of which one carried the kalumet or peace pipe together with the tobacco bag. Then an old, torn up U.S. flag was brought and set together with a flag of feathers. After this was the music, which was made with 3 or 4 drums from which they didn't miss a beat. To this a monotonous song was howled. After this came the warriors.

When the procession was all in the camp a welcome was given by the Colonel and the agents. As a sign of friendship the kalumet was smoked; first the old chief received a pair of reins, then our Colonel, and so forth, sat down with the indians and the negotiations began. Several indians spoke and interpretation was made for us through a Frenchman. Next, a wardance was performed and battle songs sung, at which they broke up the assembly.

The next day we marched on again, this time southerly along the banks of the Rum river until St. Anthony, one of many German occupied towns, where we went along the banks of the Mississippi river, on past Minnehaha Waterfall, the most beautiful little falls I have ever seen. Then back to Fort Snelling again, which we reached on the 4th of November. Here we stayed until the 11th.

Because our company was ordered south during the time we were away I, therefore, did not have to go, so I enjoyed my time in St. Paul very much. On the 11th we were boarded on transports, came through Lake Pepin to Ritz Landing and Winona and on the evening of the 13th to Lansing where we stayed 3 days. One whole company was housed here. Then we went to Prairie Du Chien which we reached at 3 o'clock in the morning. I, with some friends, went across (the river) to McGregor where we spent some enjoyable hours.

Next noon we rode to Chicago on the railroad and from there to Cairo, which we reached on the early morning of the 16th. Here we found the other 4 companies of our regiment who were guarding southern prisoners. We were stuck in old, run down barracks where the mice and rats gave us no rest.

On the 19th we already got orders for Memphis. We shipped out on the 20th and got to Memphis on the evening of the 21st. Grant had prepared his land campaign against Vicksburg here. On the 26th the Army of Memphis departed and on Dec. 1st, at the Tallahatchie, they had a battle with the rebel General Price after which the latter drew back.

Part of the army stayed there and a part under Sherman were sent back to go by water to Vicksburg and cooperate with Grant. Our regiment was sent to Waterford on the Miss. Central railroad around which our Company was stationed to guard.

On the 9th after many adventures, nightly alarms on College Hill, etc. we came into a heavy rain before which I myself got protection in a smiths (sawmill). Here we stayed until the 17th where I with 12 other men kept guard outside in the rough, dug out trenches. We were laying in a cotton press at night when around 1 o'clock we were attacked by about 20 rebels.

The posts came back and asked me to go to the fort which I refused so only one man was dispatched to alarm the Company. The rebels came upon us carelessly enough and didn't think their movements were so closely watched. We gave them a good volley whereupon they themselves made dust; only around the hospital did they find the advantage where they took 6 guardsmen and 2 horses captive.

We went after them in the morning but could not catch up and were ordered immediately to Waterford where with still more Regiments we marched to Holly Springs where our main depot was and which the rebels, through treachery, had taken from commander Morre (Murphy).

It was there that several million dollars worth of supplies were burned and for this reason our army was forced to postpone the operation against Vicksburg.

On the 20th we came to Holly Springs but we found it had been abandoned by the rebels and half the town was burned down. On the 23rd we left that place and marched back to the railroad. However, the whole army had left it's position and the line of operation was shifted back 100 miles. We were transported to Jackson, Tenn., which we reached on the night of Dec. 30th at 12 o'clock and camped in the open air.

The next morning we put up tents; however, in the evening the drums already called us to march again; the enemy Generals Sorresk and Van Dorn were on the march against Jackson and we had to march the whole night with swiftness. We rested 1 hour in the morning and then went forward again. Soon we met 1 regiment with 400 prisoners and 6 cannons and they brought us good news that the foe had been defeated and were in full flight. But we were trying to cut off the retreat over the Tennessee river after their defeat at Parkers Cross Roads.

With hungry bellies (we only had 2 rations in our oatbags) we marched along in the rain and mud, on and on, but only to see, on the 4th, the last rebels cross over the river.

The foe had his cannons so well positioned on the other side that we had to immediately fall back again. (Nightly alarms before we came to the river, barricade works, posted guards, hunger, rain, mud and so forth).

On the 6th we got back to Bethel. From there the regiment was sent back to Jackson on the railroad; our company had to go by wagons and forage. (confiscating, getting lost, madness) until we arrived again in Jackson on the 11th of January. Herewith our first campaign was concluded and we were employed while garrisoned at Jackson.

The weather was cold and wet and many of our people were sick or dead and many were troubled with guard duty and foraging and had to exercise quite a bit. Also, I got jaundice and had alot of pain. In addition we were depressed because luck had not been for our side lately and everywhere we had suffered losses.

So it was until the 19th of April when we were ordered to Corinth; here we had to fill the places of the other regiments which were away on an expedition to Tuscumbia. We had alot to do in a week, having to go to Burnsville, 20 miles away, 2 times by railway to bring provisions to the returning expedition. There were several bridges burned but fortunately we got through.

On the 1st of May we returned to Jackson and on the 3rd our regimental company was stationed evenly along the Mobile & Ohio and Mississippi Central railroads with the headquarters and quartermasters office in Jackson. There were 20 men, 3 corp. and 1 sergeant needed to stay back as guards and the choice fell on me. So for 4 weeks I had a very nice time until on the 1st of June when the regiments returned.

On that same day an attack was expected from General Forrest and while all the troops were ordered out I had to guard the headquarters with my command. However, the attack did not happen and on the 4th of June the place was entirely cleared of our troops.

We went by railway to Bolivar and then to La Grange which we reached on the 6th. Here we remained until the 8th and then went by foot 10 miles farther to Moscow on the Memphis and Charleston railroad where our regiment was stationed again.

Another 2 cannons and 2 companies of cavalry came along and we had good times there. There were blackberries and apples, peaches etc., in abundance and although the guerillas continually swarmed around us and often attempted raids we were always on our guard. It was the same for our foraging party which often dared to go as far as 10 miles out and fortunately always came through.

We had alot of fun there and were very often alarmed by guerillas, which we then waylayed the whole night, but (we had gotten so used to it) only caught some of these fellows 2 times. The watches were very hard, but we got so used to it that we felt as safe on outpost as in camp.

On the 20th of June at 12 o'clock at night, we were suddenly ordered to La Grange where the foe was threatening the town. It was doubtful that by the time our forces got there we would be strong enough . We marched in the dark night in a strong rain and arrived in the morning tired and soaked, however, it had only been a false alarm and no enemy was seen. We lay down in an old barn while it continued to rain and there we found out where we could get whiskey. So we were right well pleased and despite the soaked clothes and cold were in good spirits.

Next afternoon we were ordered back again by train and in the evening about 10 o'clock we were just having a nice drink of whiskey when we were bothered again by the alarm drums; however, once again it was a false alarm and we fell back again into our old, everyday lives.

On the lookouts we had suffered alot from mosquitos and it was then that many people had attacks of fever so that we all longed to be away. I soon had it good though, because our orderly sergeant got sick so I had to fill his place and therefore was not bothered with the watch any more. So things were looking up (because we had money and Sutler beer) until the 20th of August when we were roused to march with 7 Iowa regiments to Memphis.

In the morning, at the start of our march, I myself did not feel entirely well already, and as we passed Lafayette I could not hardly keep up anymore; but I held out as long as possible and came with them to Collierville where we made camp.

The next morning we got as far as Germantown but I soon felt so sick that I had to be carried. Also, on the next day, when we were marching to Memphis I had to be carried and there our regiment was ordered down river, so I was brought to the hospital where I laid for 5 weeks with an intermittent fever. My treatment at the hospital was very good and when I could get around again they brought me beer and soon I was on my legs again.

During this time I also met Rud. Weber who was from the 9th Illinois regiment. My regiment, during this time, was transported to Helena and there, with an Expeditions army, marched to capture Little Rock, Arkansas. They had suffered alot from heat and lack of water but drove the enemy away (Battle at Bayou Meto) and prepared to move into winter housing.

On the 26th of September I was healthy enough that I could travel by wagon with my regiment and on the 27th floated down the Mississippi, past Helena and Napoleon, into the mouth of the White river, passed by Clarendon until reaching DeValls Bluff. From there to Little Rock with the railway, where I arrived on the 3rd of October.

The regiment was situated on the banks of the Arkansas river across from the town and were busy building barracks. Little Rock is a pretty town with a huge prison and arsenal and capitol and inhabited by many Germans.

The duties there were not hard and we had good times until the 14th of November when we were ordered back to Memphis ( the sick went on the railway, coldness).

On the 17th we got to Memphis and moved into our camp 2 miles from the town where we spent our time on outpost duty.

On the 2nd of December our company was detached from our regiment and stationed on the Charlestown and Memphis railway. We had to do guard duty there and had to search and question passengers; also, every day 1 sergeant and 10 men as guards had to accompany the passenger train to Grand Junction 150 miles away. The duty was therefore rather hard but we had comfortable quarters there and it was the same at the depot. We did not have to sit out in the rain while on duty and had the freedom to go to town, so we had a wonderful life. We were not allowed to indulge in drinking there, so every morning we took the opportunity to confiscate some bottles of this precious stuff during inspection of passengers. Naturally, it was for our own use. We also had to provide for our barracks provost who was nearby and since sales of drinks in the town was not allowed either, we often dropped off there too.

We made acquaintances with ladies, went to dances and circles (?), in short, lived wonderfully and in freedom. With pleasure I remember yet the happy hours that I lived in a German-owned (by the name of H. Lau) saloon; I and another sergeant, Schecker, called it our headquarters.

Guard duty on the train was soon becoming sickening to me.

On the 25th of December we were attacked, namely by the rebels in Lafayette, while we were taking on water (on the train). We were rescued only through the quick thinking of the engineer who at once ran us back. A corporal of ours was wounded and the whole water wagon was shot full of bullet holes.

The 2nd time, on the 12th of January, we were attacked between Germantown and Collierville. The rebels had set a torpedo on the railroad tracks and as soon as the engine hit it, it exploded, after which the rebels immediately began firing but without doing any harm. The train went forward anyway, in spite of the fact that over 2 feet of track was damaged. We sat in a passenger car and saw how funny it was the way everyone threw themselves on the ground and how crinoline dresses of the ladies got ruffled, a memorable sight to take in.

Often citizens were arrested, and on guard duty in the guardhouse we always had pastimes and sometimes could make rather alot of money. (Arrest the guard and take sabers and 2 guns from me and _______________.)

Everything must come to an end, so this also. On the 28th of January '64 we were roused and transported to Vicksburg where we were rejoined by our army corps; from there we were to make a major expedition into the interior of the country. The troops were formed from the 11th Corps under Gen. Hurlbut and the 17th Corps under Gen. McPhearson. The entire army was commanded by Gen. Sherman. Our division was under Brigadier General A. J. Smith.

We were encamped there by divisions 3 miles behind Vicksburg, where during the siege the worst battle had been waged. Trenches marked the places where so many young men had lost their lives.

On the 2nd of February they set the troops in motion and we marched through a hilly, deserted area; we crossed over the Black river and camped. On the 3rd we crossed the Bleak river and soon struck at the rebel outposts which were slowly driven back. On the next day the resistance was more violent and we had to drive back the foes' line of defense 2 times; that night we were situated on the plantation of the president Jeff. Davis.

Early the next morning we went further and kept the enemy under constant attack until they were driven back to within 5 miles of Jackson where it seemed they wanted to be stubborn. Then to our right there arose thick billows of smoke and it was reported that the 17th Corps, which had advanced in a more southerly direction, was coming up.

Soon we also heard the boom of cannons and in order to divide the enemy's forces we now joined the attack and after a little resistance drove the rebels back, with us in pursuit. At the same time McPhearson had captured Clinton, set it on fire, and moved on in the assault on Jackson. This, then, forced us to engage the foe, who quickly retreated in order to avoid being cut off.

We captured 1 cannon and 50 prisoners of theirs. However, the darkness brought our pursuit to an end and we lay ourselves down to a restless sleep in preparation of the morning's battle. The foe, however, had left Jackson. The 17th corps, after 3 tries that same evening, had taken possession of the unfortunate capitol of the state of Mississippi.

On the 7th we halted our movement and what still remained of the once beautiful town was now just burned and in ruins. The finest furniture and paintings were broken, pianos on the streets were smashed and the horses had beds made from silk sheets.

We left Jackson that same day, crossed over the big Pearl river and camped at night in the forest. On the 8th we broke at 12 noon and came through Brandon at 2 o'clock and marched until 8 in the evening.

On the 9th we passed the 27th Army Corps and marched until 1 o'clock at night when we encamped, tired and weak. The roads were covered for miles around with exhausted soldiers, who caught up first thing the next morning.

The 10th we came through Hillsborough which was burned down and where our advance guards still had skirmishes with the rebels. There I saw a rebel Major shot.

On the 12th we passed Decatur which, again, was burned. On the evening of the 13th, the rebels got on to quite a high hill. They were separated from us by a wide stream. The bridge stood there burning and the cavalry dared not cross over the stream there, so our regiment was sent for; it was already near dark as we crossed over the stream on felled trees. However, in the assault to gain the hills, the enemy, which had already erected an encampment there, was driven out. We took several guns, revolvers, and officers sabers and cooking gear and beds.

The next morning we found one dead enemy laying in the stream from where we had drawn our water the night before. Here we got our wagon train back and took 3 rations for our knapsacks and set out in pursuit the next morning under steady skirmishes.

Approaching Meridian, a railroad junction where 5-6 railroads come together, we thought the enemy would give us a battle, but we were mistaken; after the first cannon shots they abandoned their works and we overran the town where now only some poor houses stood and where the government's supplies etc, were, which we then claimed as booty.

On the 16th we went 6 miles north to Marion and there destroyed 10 miles of railroad; on the 17th the same. (Very cold, a little battle from the enemy running around).

On the 19th of February we prepared a foraging party because our rations were all gone. However, besides a few chickens and geese and cornmeal we didn't get much of anything. We took 4 men and a rebel captain prisoner. I was so lucky to rouse up a chicken on which I lived for 1 day.

On the 20th we set out because a Cavalry Expedition, which had been coming from Memphis, and with whom we were supposed to join, had not had been lucky and from lack of provisions had turned back.

We had traveled from Vicksburg on across through the state, 200 miles, until the border of Alabama and for days had waded through swamps and destroyed everything 10 - 12 miles on every side of our path. Every plantation and all the cotton was burned, negroes and cattle were taken with us and hogs slaughtered. In short, the area was so ruined that crows could no longer live there. The ground was quite good and cotton was the main product. The forests were mostly pines, yet cypress also grew alot in the swamps.

We marched through Marion Station on the 20th, which we burned, and came to Hillsborough again by another way during the dawn of the 23rd. On the 25th we set out across the Pearl river and on the 26th came to Contur, the friendliest little town I have ever seen. The town had never been occupied by our troops and we were now also under special orders not to ruin the manor houses and adjoining dwellings. (Destroyed railways, had battles with guerillas, foraging, etc.)

Here we got full rations again for the first time in a long time and on the 1st of March set forth again under heavy rain; on the 2nd we passed Lexington and on the 3rd, Brownsville; crossed over the Black river on the 4th and on the 5th came to Vicksburg again. From here General Sherman went with the greater part of his army to Tennessee; our division was attached to the Gulf Department to reinforce Banks, who was preparing to undertake the Red River expedition in order to capture Shreveport, where the rebels had many supplies, powder manufacturing, etc.

On the 10th of March we left Vicksburg with a fleet of around 20 transports, passed Natchez and Port Adams on the 11th and arrived shortly at the mouth of the Red River where we anchored for the night.

On the 12th we ran up the Red River but soon left it and traveled up the Atchafalaya and landed at Simsport in the evening. The enemy was expected to be nearby so we put out heavy guards, left the boats the next morning and marched inland where the rebels' Fort Walker was situated 3 miles away. Near the banks we found an abandoned rebel camp already and when we arrived at Fort Walker found the birds there had also flown.

We went back again, supplied ourselves with 5 days rations and prepared ourselves to set out in pursuit the same evening. We marched until 1 o'clock at night, camped until 6 in the morning and on the 14th continued further. We soon found the footprints of the rebels. However, at Moreauville we had to sit along a river because they were bound up on the other side of the woods.

After our artillery had thrown several bombs into the woods, our regiment, which was in front, crossed over on a small boat. Every time one company was over it was sent into the bushes as skirmishers; soon we drove out the enemy and occupied the edge of the woods until a bridge was built and the whole army was over. We then went forward again and we could see from unmistakable signs that the enemy was not far from us. So we often went into battle step.

The next afternoon we came through Montezuma and in the evening to Marksville (beautiful prairie, nice church in the woods, many French) where we were placed as guards so that the army did not damage the church during our pass-through.

While the first regiment was going through the town we heard shooting on the other side and thought our artillery was cleaning out the woods, thereby we would have a safe night camp, but hardly were we through too, than we heard the small weapons fire of our skirmishers and found that the enemy were occupying the strong Fort de Russy. Since our sharpshooters were forewarned at a distance, they were able to shut down the hostile cannons of the fort. (The last canister of shots would have taken out nearly our entire company). We proceeded into battle and with casualties of about 30 men took into our possession the fort and 11 cannons, 400 prisoners, a quantity of rations and ammunition. We had marched 32 miles that day and by sunset a rather hot days work was done.

There were only French who lived here and many could not speak English. The countryside was outstanding; a great tree-less plain 50 miles wide with forest surrounding it; on the edges the people lived in quaint little houses; almost everyone here was a cattlebreeder. There they built themselves a little church with a slender steeple sticking out of the treetops of the oaks and on it a golden cupola, glistening white in the sunshine; we passed some convents the same day and the nuns shouted out curiosities from behind iron bars and looked at the passing soldiers with big eyes. The nights were very cold and we froze through completely on the open prairie.

On the morning of the 15th we got on the boats again, which in the meantime had come up the Red River until they got to the fort.

On the 16th we came to Alexandria which was abandoned by the rebels. Here we stayed until the 24th (20 miles from there a detachment of ours captured nearly 400 men and 4 cannons in a surprise attack.) where Gen. Banks was situated with the 13th and 14th Corps of New Orleans. They had never served in the fields but were nicely dressed and very proud; they looked down on us with contempt and Banks himself reproached the old man, Smith, about our poor clothes and thought that he had demanded 10,000 soldiers, but had been sent gorillas.

Smith answered that he gave the devil to the fine, spruced-up soldiers with the paper collars (white neckcollars) and that his gorillas surpassed the polished masters every time both in fighting and in marching. The main reason was, however, that Banks was jealous of our success and begrudged our good luck at Fort de Russy.

From that moment on both of the Generals of the Armies stood on anxious feet. We kept the name gorillas and later were mentioned with respect throughout the whole United States and all the rebels hunted with fear.

On the 25th we left Alexandria and camped 18 miles from there on Bayou Matin.

On the 26th we came to the Red River again at Blanchard's plantation where we stayed until the 3rd of April; meanwhile our boats had gone through the rapids 7 miles above Alexandria to get to us. (Destruction of Blanchard's, house, paintings, library, piano).

We got on the boats once again and on the 4th came to Grand Ecore. On the 5th, Banks went with the cavalry and the 13th and 14th Corps to Shreveport to, as he said, give his people glory in taking the latter town.

On the 6th we marched on, well satisfied that we should form a special reserve. On the afternoon of the 8th we heard a cannonade in our front and knew now that the enemy was found. In the evening we came to Pleasant Hill, 50 miles from Grand Ecore, where we camped. Around 1 o'clock in the morning we were awoken already, had to make breakfast, and then put out the fires.

We assumed that all was not right already and soon the news also came that Banks was defeated 17 miles away near Mansfield and were in full retreat. While it was still light everything came back, wagons, cannons, ambulances, artillery, cavalry, infantry and all in varied confusion. They brought back hair-raising stories of the superior forces of the enemy, the size of which they had not seen in a long time.

We still laid peacefully in camp, smoking our pipes, hearing how Banks had ordered the retreat of the entire army, but how Smith and his under-general, Mower, had demonstrated and how the old man said he did not bring his troops so far only to retreat.

Banks had finally given in and we got command of the departure. We went through Pleasant Hill about 1 mile where we were placed in horse shoe formation in battle lines. Our brigade took the center and advanced yet another half mile, to where the first attackers fell back, from where, when the enemy, in the belief that we had been on the run from their victory-drunk advance, would come upon our hidden main line, they should receive a hot reception. We sent out skirmishers who shot around with the enemy sharpshooters; nevertheless, using but only 2 cannons to play around with the enemy we were not able to lure them to us. We were in good spirits, our coffee boiling and joking about the cowardly rebels.

Around 7 o'clock in the evening the shooting at the outposts all at once became stronger; in no time we took our places; before us was a hill which gently rose to the crest about 200 paces from us. On the same hill we saw our skirmishers returning at a brisk run. Hardly were they in our lines than a Regiment Cavalry roared in with their objective being to take our front line of cannons. Barely had they reached the crest of the hill than the command was shouted to "fire" along our line, and men and horses rolled on the ground. Again the enemy sent cavalry and they shared the fate of the ones before.

We then heard in the distance a cry and shout like wolves do when they are hungry. It was the enemy infantry, 6 lines strong and advancing in battle step. The time had come now for us to turn back, but through a misunderstanding, no command was given. Our regiment lay still, fingers on triggers. Before us was a hill so the enemy could not see us and which was why they carelessly advanced. Both of their wings opened to our sight and they quickly drew back. We heard the buzz of bullets and here and there wounded, painful outcrys. However, there was never an enemy at our front.

Finally we heard shooting at our wings and with fright saw that the enemy had gone around us. We fell back then, the rebels were thick behind us, yelling for us to surrender, shooting with cannons and guns. 2 times our company rallied, the flags in the middle, but we always had to fall back.

The major commanded me to rally the company. I made an arc with about 10 men and we shot our guns off. Then I looked around me and saw my Major was leaving so I called to my people to rescue themselves. The battle was at it's height. The rebels were hardly 20 paces behind us and ahead of us lay an enormous tree which we had to go over; 4 were stopped by deadly balls during the attempt, 6 escaped.

Shortly thereafter I found a man from our company laying on the flag, who himself had taken it in his hands from the fallen flag-bearer. He tried to rescue it but had also taken a hit in the leg from a bullet. I took the flag with me but had to leave the man to his fate. We finally reached our 2nd line with which we fell behind and rallied. The enemy was well received by our people; first they were brought to a standstill, then caught their lines off guard, and finally they gave way. Now we set our sights on the attack and our wages were 4 cannons and 800 prisoners.

The moon shone down pale on the bloody field beneath us and the still of the night was only broken up by the moans of the wounded. The enemy had lost around 2,000 dead and wounded and we lost 1,100; from our own troops we got back 22; 8 were dead and 10 badly and 4 slightly wounded. We all had marks on us and our General, who had already been in a couple dozen fights, said that he had never heard such heavy rifle fire.

That night I went back to the field to find the wounded and there lay friend and foe in silence next to each other, it was a sight I would never forget.

The enemy pulled back 10 miles that night. Our regiment went on outpost and the next morning at 4 o'clock we also got a big surprise and were commanded to go back; our brigade was the last to leave the place and each of us was thinking how it would hurt us to leave behind our wounded; still, we did not have enough wagons so we had to leave many behind.

On the 12th we came again to Grand Ecore where we formed the right wing. The indignation against Banks was now heard even among his own people, as opposed to the greetings of hurrahs our old man, A. J. Smith, received from all the soldiers and every soldier mentioned the event in their letters and put the blame on Banks.

The 13th and 14th Corps refortified themselves to great strength and trained day and night, while we were only used as good outposts to provide information for the movement of the enemy.

Our transports were going to Shreveport during our march to Pleasant Hill and knew nothing of our holding back and so penetrated forward. The enemy used this to build batteries along the banks and when the Admiral finally wanted to turn around on the narrow, and, for the moment, shallow river to stop the building of the batteries, our gunboats could not find a way to shoot over the high, steep banks and thus the situation was rather critical.

We heard cannon shots the whole day and it pleased us to get marching orders in the evening because we had all our stores on the boats.

The evening of the 13th of April we went 10 miles until we got to Campti where we camped; here we found that several boats could not yet pass the rebel batteries.

The next morning we burned the whole town and were put in battle lines 2 miles farther, moving slowly. After several skirmishes the enemy was driven away and they, along with their batteries, made dust; whereupon the boats were set in motion and we marched back again to Grand Ecore.

At the same time General Steele was coming from Little Rock with an Expeditions Army to cooperate with us. Through our fall-back it became possible for the enemy to send reinforcements against Steele, and at Camden, Arkansas, were themselves forced to turn back. Meanwhile the enemy had blocked the Red River and so our communications with the Mississippi was cut off. 2 boats which tried to get through were already taken and destroyed and we were forced, because of lack of provisions, to turn around.

On the evening of the 20th our division got orders to march 4 miles away to Natchitoches to stop the pursuing enemy while preparations were being made to evacuate Grand Ecore. On the evening of the 21st the boats left Grand Ecore and after many supplies were destroyed the army was also set in motion about 10 o'clock. During that whole time we lay behind the town of Natchitoches in battle lines, our skirmishers fighting with the enemy. (Natchitoches is an old, pretty town founded by the Spanish, 2 miles from the Red River, which used to flow by the town; the town is known around here for its crime, gambling and loose women etc.)

Around 12 o'clock we started our retreat also, crossing over the old river bed of the Red River and camped on the other side until 7 o'clock in the morning of the 22nd. The whole army had now passed and our assignment was to cover the retreat. Without being harassed by the enemy, we marched the whole day until late in the night, 33 miles away and then camped. The next morning we marched to Cloutierville but soon had to get back into battle formation again to stop the pursuing enemy (there, Banks could not go forward with his enormous train of 2000 wagons).

However, in the evening we set forth again on our march, crossed through Cloutierville for the 2nd time and camped 2 miles further on. During that time the rebels had occupied the crossing over the Cane river in our front and layed out a strong battery on an opposing hill.

The morning of the 24th around 3 o'clock we were already awakened by cannons, which the rebels, because our careless outposts had given away their positions with their fires, had shot and wounded 5 - 6 men. We were quickly on our legs, cooked breakfast, and were in battle lines by daybreak, slowly advancing toward the enemy; a mutual cannonade ensued now and suddenly we heard at our back, actually, now our front, a cannonade. It was Banks who wanted to force the enemy from their position on the Cane river and the crossing. So, at this time there were 2 battles being fought by our army, one at Cloutierville and the 2nd at the Cane river.

About 10 o'clock we drove our enemy into flight and at the same time Banks had forced the crossing over the river and taken 2 enemy cannons; we went further again until we got to Bayou Rapids at Blanchard's plantation where we had stayed earlier.

On the 25th we were hardly set in motion when the enemy was again slashing at us; however, several well-aimed cannon balls kept them at a respectful distance and we marched undisturbed until 15 miles from Alexandria where we camped.

On the 26th our brigade moved out early and were hidden 3 miles away in a big field in the woods. The whole division marched on past us and soon came our rear guard, made up of cavalry who were retreating slowly over the field, skirmishing with the enemy.

The enemy went into the trap; unfortunately one of our people's guns went off, whereon the enemy stopped and they immediately turned around; we now opened fire and killed several. However, the purpose , to take the whole advance troop captive , was a failure and we followed the army, reaching Alexandria in the evening, where we took the same place we had camped earlier.

On the 30th of April, in the evening, a division of reinforcements came on from the 13th Corps of the Mississippi and marched 3 miles from the town where they moved into camp.

On the 1st of May the drums were suddenly beaten to begin a general march on the double and they went forth with us through the town in double quick time. We heard neither rifle fire nor the thunder of cannons and asked each other in wonder what was wrong. However, hardly had we gotten the town behind us when the newly arrived division came towards us to tell us how the enemy, with superior might approaching, had thrown away their knapsacks and rifles and hastily made dust.

As we were coming to the camp we found that our own people had burned their own things which they could not bring with them and the sutlers had even destroyed all the supplies. However, we saw nothing of the enemy and although we stayed in battle lines the whole night we were not bothered at all.

On the 2nd morning we went 7 miles farther to Moore's plantation (Moore was the rebel Governor of the state of Louisiana) where we met the enemy; we pushed around the whole day, skirmishing all the time. We had strict orders not to let it come to a battle and the only reason for the skirmishes was to give our people the opportunity to go foraging on the land. Moore's plantation, the most beautiful one I saw, with 2 sugar factories, was totally ruined, the royal estate houses destroyed, (books, pianos, paintings, couches ruined) carpets and beds used for sleeping, the buildings burned, beautiful greenhouses leveled to the ground, etc.

On the next day we began the skirmishing anew and though the orders were strong to avoid a battle, we still pushed the enemy 7 miles further on the 4th and it ended in a fight on Moore's Bayou, in which the rebels withdrew.

We received orders on the 5th to go back and took our old position again on Moor's plantation. Here we had to hold back the enemy until Banks made his preparations to leave Alexandria which was to happen on the 13th.

After we had burned half the town we set ourselves in motion and came to Marksville on the 15th, continually skirmishing with the enemy.

On the 16th our artillery, with that of the enemy, had a strong fight on the Marksville prairie, whereat no infantry actually came into the fight, but we were a match for the enemy there and so the way was finally opened which allowed us to move undisturbed.

The night of the 16th we camped 5 miles behind Moreauville. On the morning of the 17th we went into a garden 1/2 mile from camp to get peas, but were chased by the oncoming enemy. Soon thereafter we broke from camp and marched until one mile from Fort Walker.

The morning of the 18th at 4 o'clock we set out over a bayou and marched through Fort Walker. However, the enemy was close behind us and Banks had not yet crossed over the Atchafalaya which was 3 miles away, so we and the 7th brigade had to go back again about 9 o'clock in the morning to match up once again with the enemy.

The bayou was hardly at our backs again when we soon received several cannon balls. 30 of our cannons were quickly in position and a terrifying cannon duel ensued which lasted for 3 hours. We had nothing to do except to cover the cannons which, however, was dangerous enough because we had to lay stretched out on the ground in order to protect ourselves from the balls. It was very hot there and we suffered alot from the heat with our faces so close to the hot ground. Here and there a painful cry showed us that a ball had done it's job and not far from me a cannon ball cut a man, who was at the right height, in 2 pieces.

Now and then the rebels tried to take our battery and then we had to drive them back. Finally the rebels were so close to a battery which we covered that the balls of the cannons became dangerous. We were ordered to charge and with a Hurrah, we went after them up to a bushy area wherein the rebels set up again, our cannons coming close behind. We were ordered to lay down and our people fired away with canister and grape shots over our heads which fearfully thinned out the lines of the enemy; then we advanced again and drove the enemy through the woods over to the other side of an open field. We had hardly appeared in the opening than we were caught face to face with a rebel battery ready to play with us and we had to withdraw into the woods. However, the enemy's desire to come after us again was gone and after several rounds a stillness set in. The enemy pulled back leaving the field to us (exploding of the ammunitions wagons)

The rebels were 12,000 men strong and commanded by the French prince Polignac; in comparison we had only 2 brigades with 3,000 men. We lost 400 dead, 1500 wounded and 100 prisoners. From now on we had rest before the rebels.

On the 19th we stayed at the same place and after Banks had crossed over the Atchafalaya on the 20th, we also went over the river the same day and the next day came to the Mississippi. We were all happy because from the 9th of April until the 20th of May, over a stretch of 250 miles, we had heard the cannons every day, the rebels always on our heels and it was only the prudence and the military talent of General Smith as well as the perseverance attributed to his people that the whole army was not imprisoned. Day and night we were in motion on our legs, often without rations, often attacked by the enemy while sleeping, yet finally we were now, fortunately, coming back and it pleased us heartily to come to our old department again.

The Red River valley is one of the most beautiful plains of the south. The main product is sugar from the great plantations which is abundant and pretty. In the plains alot of cattle are raised , especially among the French inhabitants, which there are many of here.

On the 20th of May we climbed aboard the boats and came to Vicksburg on the 22nd, where we put on new clothes, got several days rest, which was, however, poor enough since we camped right on a sandy, tree-less plain and suffered alot from the heat.

On the 4th of June we got on the boats again and traveled up the river. On the 5th we laid over at Columbia and there we had learned that General Marmaduke had blocked the river farther ahead with a strong battery, so we left the boats in order to drive away the enemy.

On the morning of June 6th it rained terribly, nevertheless we marched against the enemy and after a march of 6 miles we hit them on Lake Chicot. After a small skirmish we were ordered to assault the hostile battery and we went forth over an open field. When we were about 200 paces nearer, the battery opened up on us with canister shot and many dropped down silently. We let loose at them with Hurrah, but who could describe our shock, when we saw our advance brought to a standstill on the edge of a deep bayou. We quickly laid down before the balls could be shot and looked for a way to cross over the bayou at another place. However, in the meantime the rebels made dust; we pursued them until Lake Village where we camped and on the next morning went back to the boats

On the 8th we went on to Memphis where on the 11th we moved into a camp 3 miles from the town. After 3 or 4 days we were paid and thought we would now get proper care but fate had planned it differently. Shortly before this an expedition under Major General Sturgis had gone out from Memphis to destroy the railway between Corinth and Mobile. However, at Guntown he was so totally defeated by the rebels that the troops, individually and without rifles, had to find their way back to Memphis.

We were determined to hone out the notches again and on the 27th of June were ordered to Moscow on the railway, on which trip the guerillas fired at the train and several people died or were wounded.

On the 30th we marched to La Grange and started on the expedition. On the 7th we came through Ripley and on the 9th we crossed over the Tallahatchie and camped at New Albany (set out with General Smith).

On the 11th we came to Pontotoc where we met the enemy; we camped 2 mile on the other side of the town and our outposts were close to those of the enemy's.

On the next day we found out from reconnaissance that the enemy had set out strong, hidden batteries on the only ways to Ocolona that we could take. Therefore, we left our camp on the next morning in complete silence, went back through Pontotoc and took a way on the left to Tupelo; we left behind just so many cavalry as to fool the enemy.

When we had marched about 10 miles we met a small rebel outpost from which we killed 7 men. 2 miles from Tupelo we made a stop and searched out a good place to fight, from which we would be able to give the enemy, who was following us in the meantime, a worthy reception.

On the next morning at 3 o'clock the enemy showed us early on that it would be ready for the bloody battle through a well aimed cannon shot which flew way over our heads. In a moment it roared on all sides and death took a rich harvest. We were posted in the center in the 2nd line and therefore had no part on the outcome of the battle. However, many times the bullets flew thick over our heads and sent many young men to eternity.

5 times the rebels attacked but each time they had to give way before our first line, leaving many of their people laying on the field. The 5th time we made a counter attack and drove them 2 miles away where they pulled back entirely.

1,200 of their people remained on the battlefield and 200 prisoners were in our hands. General Forrest, undefeated until now, was wounded and 3 Colonels died.

We had only 32 dead and 200 wounded. During the time that we engaged the enemy, our cavalry was going to the railway and had destroyed it and burned a 3 mile long bridge.

Next afternoon our brigade was ordered to cover the left wings where the enemy wanted to make it appear like they were marching against the same. However, all remained quiet allowing us to cover the artillery.

The enemy seemed to have no more desire to follow us further after getting both lessons and so we came to Salem where rations had been sent to us.

On the 18th we came to New Albany again, on the 22nd to La Grange, on the 23rd to Moscow, on the 24th to Collierville from where we were ordered to Memphis the same day on the railway.

We remained there until the 3rd of August when we undertook an expedition to Grenada and Columbia in Mississippi in order to suck up an area which had not yet been affected by the war and to engage a hostile power there under General Forrest, then to meet Sherman's Communication which lay right in front of Atlanta.

We were ordered by railway to Holly Springs where they had gathered the army and we remained there until the 12th. Then we went to Waterford and from there to the Tallahatchie which we crossed over and went to Abbeville where we camped and from where our cavalry had driven the rebels the day before.

We had to stay there three days because of heavy rains which had made the paths impassable; we then marched to Oxford. However, on the morning of the 17th we got the news 2 miles form Oxford confirming that Forrest had been in Memphis, which was occupied by only 100 day staff, and had left the town again after only a 2 hour stopover.

Now we had no further reason to march forward because to leave this brave General operating at our backs was dangerous. In addition, the paths were so bad that we almost could not take along the wagons.

So we went back and on the 21st came to Holly Springs. (Dangerous foraging on the Tallahatchie, guerillas, apples, peaches, etc.) From there we marched to Memphis where we arrived on the 25th.

The first division left Memphis on September 1st on boats and were ordered to Arkansas and from there to march to Missouri where the rebel General Price was preparing to make an invasion into the latter state.

Our division took boats to Cairo on the 4th where we stayed 8 days, then were ordered to Sulphur Springs, 20 miles from St. Louis in Missouri. (Good beer from a German).

On the 15th we went to Jefferson Barracks 7 miles from St. Louis. We still did not know from which way the rebel General Price was coming so we had to lay over there several days and had a good time.

St Louis and the surrounding area is inhabited almost entirely by Germans and near by our camp was a good saloon called Days Rest; we often went to Carandolch, a suburb of St Louis, and several times to St Louis itself.

We were among friends here and didn't need to be afraid of a guerilla laying behind every tree or to see in every citizen a rebel. It was the first time since we were in the service that we came so far north so we enjoyed life to the fullest.

All things were cheap, and the beer was good and only 5 cents a glass, whereas, in the south we often had to pay 25 cents for the same yet got only bad stuff. I looked for several acquaintances and had a few good sprees. (Drinking binges)

However, we soon found out that Price was indeed coming and in fact was around Pilot Knob, a fortified place on the Iron Mountain railroad. Therefore we were ordered by railway to DeSoto where 2 brigades stayed; our brigade was stationed on the railway from there to Pilot Knob and our regiment went to Mineral Point. The area there is very mountainous and contains alot of minerals like iron and lead.

The railroad travelled over many small rivers and through big tunnels and so we had to keep a sharp watch so that bridges were not burned. So, on the 23rd of September we arrived in Mineral Point with the railroad.

On the 24th we caught a guerilla there (Shelly Coole) who was just about to burn a bridge over the railroad; he was held under guard but tried to escape by taking the rifle from the guard and then tried to shoot the sergeant, but he was recaptured and watched closely.

On the morning of the 25th the enemy showed itself at Pilot Knob. There they had besieged General Ewing with his 700 men but they had to retreat with a loss of 1,200 men, whereon the garrison left the fort and fortunately got to Centralia.

The 24th Missouri, which wanted to get to Pilot Knob, could not get through and came back on the morning of the 25th. The troops were positioned in battle lines in order to hold back the enemy until the preparations for leaving the place were complete.

Ours and 2 other companies were placed on the depot and as soon as the first rail car was ready we went back with it to the Merrimac bridge where we stayed. In the evening the other troops came too and we took a good position on a ridge, the river in front of us.

The next morning we went to DeSoto and on the 28th back to Jefferson Barracks. On the way from Mineral Point to DeSoto the guerilla had cut the throat of the sergeant that guarded him so that he immediately fell down dead, then wounded still 4 others and then looked for an escape. He was recaptured, terribly mishandled, and hanged the next morning in DeSoto; at that time he confessed to have killed 31 people in all.

In Jefferson Barracks we had several good days once again and then set out on the great expedition against Price.

On the 3rd of October we marched to Kirkwood and on the 4th, during a heavy rain, to Gray Summit where we stayed until the 7th. Then we went to the Meramec river where we camped in the vicinity of a mill between the hills on one of the most romantic places I have ever seen. On the 8th we marched through Union City where we met a militia brigade which marched with us. We marched 32 miles and in the evening came to a small river where we camped and stayed the next day. The militia did not go there.

On the 10th we crossed over the Gasconade, a beautiful, clear river; on the 11th through Linn, on the 12th we waded through the Osage river and on the 13th came to Jefferson City, the capitol of Missouri with a beautiful state prison on the Missouri river. The area from St. Louis to here is almost entirely inhabited by Germans and is very mountainous and arid.

On the 14th we went to California, on the 16th through Tipton and Syracuse to a railroad bridge where provisions and the first Division came to us. On the 18th we came through Sedalia, on the 19th through Georgetown and on the 21st to Lexington. The area here is tree-less and we marched across great prairies; the towns were all deserted by the rebels who were 3-4 days march ahead of us. The hostile rear-guard had left Lexington 2 days before and our cavalry was on their heels. If our cavalry did their job well, then the possibility was there that they could hold back the enemy long enough for us to get there and then things would happen to the hostile army.

Therefore, on the 22nd we marched very hard; also on the 23rd until 10 o'clock in the evening when we came into camp, cooked supper and around 12 at night left again.

In the morning we came through Independence, a very pretty town. Here our spirits were renewed because we saw the most certain signs that there was a fight here. Dead horses, broken down wagons and dead enemies themselves covered the path and with renewed courage we went forward again.

At 6 o'clock we came up to the Big Blue river but only to see by the battlefield that the enemy had luckily gotten across and were in full flight with our cavalry behind them. Since this was the only place where the enemy could have been delayed long enough for us to arrive we gave up all further pursuit and camped on the other shore.

After we had rested up we looked over the battlefield where the dead still lay nearby. I was so happy to find a good pair of socks on an enemy because I was barefoot several days already and my feet hurt me very much, so I claimed it as good booty.

Then I went into the hospital where about 100 wounded rebels lay and although I had seen alot of dead and wounded, I felt sorry for the poor people which lay there on the bare ground in their blood and in great pain.

On the 25th we marched on past Kansas City where the rebels had lost their wagon train and where our cavalry had taken 10 canons and 500 prisoners along with General Marmaduke; then through Santa Fe in Kansas, where we camped. Here we met a part-Kansas Indian who wanted to help us drive the rebels too.

On the 26th we went to Harrisonville, from where we set out on the way back on the 29th. We suffered alot since many were without shoes, but we had to march every day, so we had no time to wash and were so full of pests that we almost could not help ourselves.

At the same time it began to get cold and we didn't have many coverings and for that reason we had to maintain a big fire at night.

On the 30th we marched to Pleasant Hill from where we marched in individual brigades. On the 31st we came through Lone Jack, on the 2nd to Lexington again; on the 3rd we marched through Dover and came to Waverly on the Missouri river. It had snowed the whole night and in the morning we had to crawl through the snow. Then we went 23 miles farther in a bitter cold and came to Glasgow on the 5th, which lay on the north side of the Missouri river and which we crossed over the same night.

We stayed there on the 6th, on the 7th we went to Fayette where we camped in a low area but were driven away by rain. We stayed there until the 10th; on the 8th was election day for the president.

On the 9th the paths were too poor. On the 10th Rocheport, on the 11th to Columbia, on the 13th through Williamsburg, on the 14th through Danville to High Hill and on the 15th to Warrentown where there is a great institute. On the 17th we came on into St. Charles and crossed over the Missouri.

From there we went to St. Louis on the 18th where we camped 4 miles from the town in camp Gamble.

To describe the suffering and deprivation of these marches is more than my pen can stand. We had put up with extreme heat, cold, pests and intense marches and if we had not had so many apples and enough pork we would have starved. Barefoot, ragged and sick we marched on. I had even thrown away my shirt in Glasgow because of the many pests, then marched like that another 180 miles.

Yet, hardly had we arrived and were paid-up and given new clothes than all suffering was forgotten and proud and as easy going as before, we told of our adventures in the town over a glass of cool beer.

However, this good life could not last long. General Sherman had set out on his great march from Atlanta to Savannah and General Thomas was left behind to watch the enemy but the enemy was too strong and our troops pulled back slowly to Nashville. Therefore, we were ordered to Nashville as quickly as possible as reinforcements. On the 25th we left St. Louis on boats, came to Cairo on the evening of the 27th where we stayed until the 29th, then went up the Ohio river, on past Mound City, Paducah and Smithland, then into the Cumberland river on past Clarksville, to Nashville where we arrived early in the morning on December 1st.

At the same time we were ordered off the boats and marched through the town to the road to Franklin. 3 miles outside of the town we camped and in the evening already heard the skirmish fire of the rebels which had followed the retreating Union army.

Thomas had had to retreat with his troops before the superior forces of the rebels and although he had given them a battle at Franklin where the rebels attacked in vain 15 times, he pulled back yet again at night and the rebel armies now lay by Nashville boastfully claiming they would be eating breakfast in the town in several days.

The rebels under their daring General Hood were 70,000 men strong; our army numbered about as many but there were still reinforcements on the way.

Yet that same evening our army took their places by Nashville surrounding a chain of hills called Cumberland Heights. Our line was over 7 miles long and both wings rested on the Cumberland river where they were supported by the cannon boats.

The right wing was formed from the 16th Army Corps under Major General A.J. Smith under the name Detachment of the Tennessee. In the center was the 4th Corps under Major General Wood and the left wing under Major General Steedman, consisting of various troops drawn together from Tennessee and Mississippi, and made up of substitutes and conventionals from Sherman's army and several regiments of negroes who joined General Schofield with the 23rd Corps.

We threw up rough breastworks the whole night and by the next morning were thoroughly covered against an assault by the enemy, but the latter made no sign of an assault and we had time to strengthen the weak places in our fortifications. Everything was quiet now except for the usual fire of the skirmish line which was not answered by the enemy.

On the next day the rebels tried to post batteries on the opposite heights but were hindered from getting it done by our cannons. Meanwhile it began to snow and freeze and the troops suffered much from the cold, especially at the outposts which were able to retire only at night.

The rebels made no show of a siege so we prepared for our own assault and on the morning of the 15th of December at daybreak they moved our troops in long lines behind the fortifications from where we would pay a visit to the enemy on the opposite heights. The plan was to direct the attention of the rebels to the left wing and the center through strong skirmishes but to make no direct assault. During that time the right wing should make the main assault, attacking the enemy in the front and the flank and to gradually dislodge it's whole line.

With brave steps our columns moved forward and soon drove back the outposts of the enemy; the flank attacks were carried out with good luck and by evening we had nearly gone around it's left wing. That night our advance occupied the target and the enemy had pulled back to it's 2nd fortified line 3 miles from our location.

The chain of hills, which they still occupied (Overton Hills), were crowned with batteries and the enemy seemed secure behind the strong earthen walls. Although we knew that we would have hard work again the next day, we were still of good courage because we had driven the enemy back 3 miles and had taken 800 prisoners and 12 cannons.

Early the next morning we were set in motion again to begin the assault; we had hardly gotten the attention of the enemy when they greeted us with 80 cannons and our cannons did not hold back the reply; so began a frightful cannon duel.

The 4th corps in the center tried 4 times to break through the lines of the enemy, but every time had to go back again with casualties. Then the rebels undertook an assault there but in vain as well. During that time our right wing was slowly advancing and it was successful in carrying out several fortunate flanking attacks and driving the enemy from us.

Now the battle got hotter and hotter but the enemy still held a strong position on a hill just to our right and all efforts to drive them out were unsuccessful. It was now three o'clock in the afternoon. Then, all at once we heard rifle fire and Hurrah in back of the rebels; it was the others and they were successful in surrounding the enemy. Immediately the attack was ordered along the whole line and with joy we went forward.

The hostile cannons shot a canister salvo and although many poor devils fell, we went forward. The lines of the rebels staggered and they rushed in wild flight from us or stayed lying behind their fortifications begging for mercy with pleading looks.

We followed the enemy until dark, then camped because the rain streaming down had no respect for the shining victory. 72 cannons, 8000 prisoners, 37 flags, a mass of wagons, horses, ammunition, rifles and other stuff was our wages and never before was such a complete victory achieved like this.

On the morning of the 17th we took off in pursuit again, but because of the rains we could only go forward slowly. The rebels had thrown away everything so they only had themselves to take along, thus we could not catch up with the army.

On the 18th we came to Franklin and on the 22nd to Duck river, where we had to wait until the 24th because of a problem with a pontoon bridge. We then crossed over, went through Columbia, and came to Pulaski on the 29th. It rained or snowed every day and we suffered much from cold and wetness.

On the 30th we came through Lawrenceborough and on the 31st we had a very cold night; at 12 o'clock we were awakened by lovely music from the Newport Regiment which was blowing-in the new year.

On the 2nd of January we came through Greensburg to Clifton on the Tennessee river and here our march had reached it's end for now. The area through which we came was sparsley populated, very mountainous but rich in minerals, especially rich in iron ore.

Charles Ewringmann Letter

Dear Ms Johnson,

The work is done. Photo and pages are copied. They will be sent to you the next days. I hope you will find a possibility to translate it. The name of your relative is mentioned on page 91. The pages before 88 my great grandfather describes his journey from Hamburg to America by ship. He searched for a new business in America. In Germany he was a farmer at Dortmund. Having finished he returned to Dortmund disillusioned.

Yours sincerely
Dr. Ernst Ewringmann