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No Surnames: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Jane Pennock married (2) Joshua Lynch in 1842; and married (3) John Chambers, born July 18, 1794, died March 30, 1885. Jane Pennock died August 12, 1892, aged 98 years at the home of her grandson, Walter James at Springdale, IA., grandfather of Homer Beers James.
See continuation of this lineage in the James Line.
"Many of the primitive houses were
built in a very crude manner (the lumber having to be hauled from
Muscatine) with what was called a ballon frame, the boards being
put on up and down; they were sometimes occupied for months without
battening and plastering; the occupants suffered much from the
intensely cold winds, which prevailed unobstructed in those early
days. The only barns were formed by planting forked sticks in
the ground, with poles for rafters, and covered with slough hay,
the sides being sheathed with the same material or straw, by leaning
up poles and piling the hay or straw upon them. Often the sides
were formed by stacks of hay or straw."
They had the following children:
See continuation of this lineage in the Negus Line.
Akers, Charles W., "Called Unto Liberty, A Life of Jonathan Mayhew (1720-1766)", Harvard University Press, 1964. Akers was a history professor at Geneva College, Beaver Falls, PA.
Corrigan, John, "The Hidden Balance - Religion and the Social Theories of Charles Chauncy and Jonathan Mayhew," Cambridge University Press, 1987. Corrigan is a professor at the University of Virginia.
Banks, Dr. Charles Edward, "English Ancestry of Gov. Thomas Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, 1593-1682," Cambridge (1901)
_________, "The Mayhew Family Tree" (1855). Copy obtained from Mormon Family History Library. It covers eight complete generations in the form of an actual tree, starting from Thomas Mayhew, father of Thomas Mayhew. Excerpts from this chart are included below.
Torrey, Clarence Almon, "New England
Marriages Prior to 1700," The Genealogical Press.
The following was obtained from a Mayhew Family
Tree, published in 1855, covering all generations from 1631 to
"Thomas Mayhew, Governor and Patentee
of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Elizabeth Isles. Removed
from Watertown, MA and commenced a settlement at Edgartown, Martha's
Vineyard in the year 1642. He gave his son much assistance in
the benevolent work of converting the heathen. After the death
of his son, he being acquainted with the Indian language and seeing
no prospect of procuring a Pastor for them he began himself to
preach to the natives as well as the English at seventy years
of age preached 23 years and died at the advanced age of 93 years.
His last and dying words were, "I have lived by faith and
have found God in my son, and there I find him now, therefore,
if you would find God, look for him in your son, there he is to
be found and nowhere else"."
According to Charles W. Akers, "Called
Unto Liberty, A Life of Jonathan Mayhew, " written in
1964, the definitive work on the life of Jonathan Mayhew:
"Thomas Mayhew, a merchant originally
from Tisbury Parish in Wiltshire, left England in 1631 during
the Great Migration that brought 20,000 persons to Massachusetts
in thirteen years. While engaged in business ventures in the vicinity
of Boston, he acquired the title in 1641 to Martha's Vineyard,
an island of one hundred square miles located four miles south
of Cape Cod. The following year he sent his only son, Thomas Mayhew,
Jr., to assume control of the island, where, after some business
setbacks, the father joined the son."
"Through a maze of conflicting land
grants, changing political allegiances, and settler unrest, Thomas
Mayhew, self-styled--"Governour Mayhew"--ruled his island
with an iron hand for forty years. The most serious threat to
his control came in 1665 when Martha's Vineyard was included in
the lands placed under the Duke of York. After much delay a settlement,
worked out in 1671, confirmed the Mayhew patent and named Thomas
Mayhew "Governour and Chiefe Magistrate" for life. At
the same time a patent was issued erecting the Manor of Tisbury
in the southwestern part of the island. The Governour and his
grandson were made "joint Lords of the Manor of Tisbury,"
and the inhabitants became manorial tenants subject to the feudal
political jurisdiction of the Mayhews. This full-fledged feudal
manor appears to have been the only such institution actually
established in New England."
"The attempt of the Mayhews to create
a hereditary aristocracy on the Vineyard met with increasing opposition
as more and more colonists arrived. When the Dutch temporarily
recaptured New York in 1673, open rebellion broke out and lasted
until the English rewon New York and restored the authority of
the Mayhews on the island. The old patriarch died in 1682 at eight-nine.
Nine years later the political rule of the family ended when Martha's
Vineyard was annexed by Massachusetts after the Glorious Revolution,
but the problem of manorial tenancy remained. Although some of
the Mayhews clung to the "pleasant fiction" of their
manorial rights almost until the American Revolution and received
token quit rents as late as 1732, feudalism on Martha's Vineyard
died the same slow, lingering but certain death it did elsewhere
in the colonies."
"Kenneth Scott Latourette has concluded
that the Missionary Mayhews of Martha's Vineyard represent what
is likely the longest and most persistent missionary endeavor
in the annals of all Christendom. Thomas Mayhew, known for his
missionary work, was not concerned for Indian souls when he settled
on his island; he sought only to improve his social and economic
position. The son rather than the father receives credit for launching
the Indian mission. Thomas Mayhew, Jr., had emigrated from England
with the elder Mayhew. Somewhere he received a liberal education,
apparently from private tutors. After moving to the Vineyard to
begin the white settlement there, he became pastor of the small
English church as well as the acting governor in his father's
absence. He soon discovered that he could not refuse the challenge
he found among the three thousand Pokanaukets, a branch of the
mainland Narragansetts, far outnumbered the whites, so an effective
settlement required friendly relations with the Indians. But Thomas
Mayhew, Jr., appears to have been motivated largely by spiritual
concern, while his father and other members of the family enjoyed
the practical results of the Indian mission. The younger man gradually
abandoned most of his secular tasks and spent the remainder of
his life among the natives. Progress was slow at first, but by
the end of 1652 there were 283 converts, a school for Indian children,
and two Indian meetings each Sabbath. The Praying Indians of Martha's
Vineyard who said grace before meals became a topic of conversation
on both sides of the Atlantic. Thomas Mayhew, Jr., carried on
his missionary work with little heed to his personal fortunes.
As the elder Mayhew put it, his son had followed this work "when
'twas bare with him for food and rayment, and when indeede there
was nothing in sight any waies but Gods promises." The situation
was improved somewhat by the formation in 1649 of a London missionary
society, usually called the New England Company, which in a few
years began to provide substantial aid for the Mayhews and other
"In the fall of 1657, Thomas Mayhew,
Jr., sailed for England on a trip combining an appeal for missionary
funds with personal business. After leaving Boston Harbor, the
ship was never seen again. The death of his only son at thirty-six
was a heavy blow to the father and greatly increased the burdens
he carried in old age. He made repeated efforts to find a replacement
to continue his son's ministry to the Indians, but no minister
who knew the language or was willing to learn could be induced
to settle permanently on the island. So Thomas Mayhew, who started
as a merchant, then turned landed proprietor, became at age sixty
a missionary in his son's place. For the next twenty-five years
he traveled on foot as far as twenty miles to preach once a week
at the Indian assembly or to visit the native camps."
"From the beginning the elder Mayhew
had worked to preserve the original political institutions of
the Indians. Religion and government are distinct matters, he
told the Indian chiefs. When one of your subjects becomes a Christian,
he is still under your jurisdiction. Indian land was guarded against
further encroachment by white settlers. So successful were these
policies that during the bloody battles of King Philip's War,
in 1675-1676, the Vineyard Indians never stirred, although they
outnumbered the English on the island twenty to one. By practicing
as well as preaching the gospel and by understanding the value
of the native institutions, the Mayhews gave Martha's Vineyard
a felicitious pattern of Indian-White relations seldom duplicated
in the conquest of the North American continent."
"When the venerable Governor Mayhew
became ill one Sunday evening in 1682, he calmly informed his
friends and relatives that `his Sickness would now be to Death,
and he was well contented therewith, being full of Days, and satisfied
with Life.' His great-grandson, Experience Mayhew, Jonathan's
father, was only eight at the time, but he remembered clearly
being led to the bedside to receive from the dying man a blessing
`in the Name of the Lord.' Family leadership then passed to the
three grandsons, two of whom deserted the mission, leaving John,
the youngest grandson and grandfather of Jonathan, to care for
Indian souls. John possessed all the zeal and aptitude for missions
exhibited by his father, Thomas Mayhew, Jr., but like his father
died in the prime of his life, only seven years after Governor
Mayhew. At John's death in 1689, the Indian mission had reached
its summit. Four or five Indian congregations met for worship
each week under ministers of their own race. Never again would
the outlook be so bright."
"John left behind a family of eight
children, the eldest of whom was Experience Mayhew, age sixteen.
He married in 1647/48 in Martha's Vineyard,
Jane Paine (Payne),
his step-sister, born in 1625, in London, daughter
of Thomas Paine and his wife, Jane Gallion.
After the death of John, Jane Paine married (2) Richard Sarson
John and Jane had the following children:
He married on November 12, 1695 in Barnstable,
MA, (1) Thankful Hinckley (Hinckly), who died in 1706 at the age
of thirty-three, daughter of Governor Hinckley of Barnstable,
the last governor of the Plymouth Colony. The children by this
marriage were as follows:
For five years after the death of his first
wife, Experience had farmed, preached to the Indians, and cared
for his three small children without the aid and comfort of a
wife. He then married, in 1711, (2) Remember Bourne, born February
1684, died March 2, 1722, uniting two of New England's oldest
missionary families. The Bournes had been ministering to the Indians
at Mashpee on Cape Cod since 1658. Remember's father, Shearjashub
Bourne, seems to have been more interested in Indian trade than
in Indian souls, but he was a highly respected and influential
man in the public affairs of southern Massachusetts. He had married
Bethsheba Skiffe, daughter of James Skiffe of Sandwich, who, although
he never lived on the Vineyard, was one of its largest landowners.
Thus, when Remember Bourne had come to Quenames at the somewhat
spinsterish age of thirty, she had brought with her a pedigree
of which a country minister with ambitions for his children need
not be ashamed. Remember had borne children for Experience as
regularly as the calendar, one every two years for ten years.
They had the following five children:
Robert Treat Paine, a signer of the Declaration
of Independence, called Jonathan Mayhew "the father of
civil and religious liberty in Massachusetts and America."
John Adams freely acknowledged the influence of Mayhew on his
youthful development. He once suggested that a dozen volumes would
be required to delineate the character of Mayhew. After the Revolution
his reputation diminished somewhat except for the leaders of the
Unitarian movement, who regarded him as the "foremost
pioneer of liberal Christianity."
From Akers' Prologue on his definitive book
on Jonathan Mayhew:
"Yet, in the second half of the nineteenth
century, a few voices could be heard maintaining in Massachusetts
that Jonathan Mayhew was a great and more eloquent American than
Daniel Webster." (For the
comparison of Jonathan Mayhew with Webster, see the Channing Hall
lecture by Andrew P. Peabody in Unitarianism: Its Origin and
History (Boston, 1890), pg. 162.)
"Mayhew's reputation had grown out
of nineteen years of battle for what he conceived to be the cause
of American liberty. He was the boldest and most articulate of
those colonial preachers who taught that resistance to tyrannical
rulers was a Christian duty as well as a human right.... He brazenly
proclaimed his abandonment of Puritan theology in favor of a "pure
and undefiled" version of Christianity."
At the age of 20 he was admitted as a charity
student to Harvard in a class of thirty-three freshmen, whose
average age was sixteen. The total enrollment at this time
was about 150 students and staff. Educational
prerequisites for admission were largely classical, every
candidate was required to demonstrate proficiency in Latin and
at least a smattering of Greek. Jonathan was readily able to meet
these requirements. In those days the graduation speeches were
given in Latin, and some even thought that scholars would eventually
all use Hebrew as their language.
Jonathan was a graduate of Harvard College on July 4, 1744, but
remained at Harvard for two more years, in preparation for the
ministry, supported by a grant from the Saltonstall Foundation.
He was ordained over the West Church and Society in Boston in
1747, following a call for election from forty-six members with
two dissenting votes. He was given the pastor's salary of 15 pounds
per week, a full woodbox, and house rent. In 1747 he also received
an M.A. degree with honors from Harvard College, at the age of
twenty-seven. In 1750 he unexpectedly received the degree of Doctor
of Divinity from the University of Aberdeen as recognition of
his "Seven Sermons."
Jonathan, at the age of thirty-six, married Elizabeth Clarke on
November 11, 1756. Who Was states that the marriage was on September
2, 1756. The Clarkes were a notable family; they boasted descent
from Sir Richard Saltonstall and other worthies of Massachusetts
Bay history. Her father was the fourth Dr. John Clarke to practice
medicine in Boston. He was also a justice of peace for Boston,
and he was elected to the Massachusetts Council in 1741, but his
election was vetoed by Governor Belcher, who objected to the physician's
support of loose-money principles of the Land Bank.
For several years Jonathan Mayhew was one of the most popular
and able writers in Massachusetts. He was Dudleian lecturer at
Harvard, 1765. He wrote "The Snare Unbroken," 1766.
But his career was short as well as brilliant, he died in 1766
at the age of forty-six much esteemed and lamented.
Jonathan and Elizabeth had the following children:
Jonathan Mayhew was a religious as well as
a political rebel against the established authority. He proclaimed
his abandonment of Puritan theology in favor of rational Christianity.
The Arminian theology he propagated was important as a way station
between Puritanism and Unitarianism. He violently protested against
the actions of the Church of England which sought to force the
establishment of bishops on American soil. With all the fervor
of the most intense Puritan, Mayhew preached the gospel of the
Enlightenment to a Boston that still attempted to govern the spirit
of Benjamin Franklin with the conscience of John Winthrop. Mayhew
was destined to shape the attitudes of New England leaders of
the American Revolution. His life suggests that religion was a
far more important cause of the Revolution than economic and political
historians have thought, according the his biographer, Charles
"From the West Church Jonathan Mayhew
launched a frontal attack on Puritan theology that helped to gain
a foothold for Arminianism in eastern Massachusetts. The Arminian
theology in this area was by no means inevitable, for moderate
Calvinism might have satisfied those persons with liberal religious
tendencies here as it did in other sections of New England. The
leadership of Mayhew and the less belligerent Charles Chauncy
of the First Church was largely responsible for the development
of Arminianism from the soul-damning heresy to the religion of
many well-educated and influential persons in Boston and nearby
towns. As a way station between the Puritanism of John Cotton
and the Unitarianism of William Ellery Channing, Arminianism occupies
a significant place in history of American religious thought.
Historians of Unitarianism have been right in hailing Mayhew as
a pioneer of their movement, though they have been wrong in confusing
his theology with their own."
"Mayhew was the boldest. most articulate,
and most influential of those New England clergymen who helped
to transform a set of political ideas into "an indwelling
conviction" and "a living belief." This political
faith he defended with "the enthusiasm that had marked no
wars but those for religion." His untimely death reminds
us that the second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence
was a creedal statement of the religion of freedom propagated
by Mayhew and others in the preceding generation. A conservative
faith which taught that revolution against tyrants was a legitimate
(almost constitutional) process as well as a religious obligation,
it was true to the developing ethos of American civilization.
As a result. it could transcend most sectarian differences. From
1765 to 1776, the majority of Americans awoke to the fact
that they, catechized by their free institutions and rising economy,
had long since become converts. To nonbelievers, Jonathan Mayhew
remained the first commander of the "Black Regiment"
of Congregational preachers who incessantly sounded "the
Yell of Rebellion in the Ears of an ignorant & deluded People."
The following was obtained from a Mayhew Family Tree, dated 1855,
and extending to all generations from 1631 to 1855:
"The Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, D.D. was
the son of Rev. Experience Mayhew of Martha's Vineyard, where
he was born in the year 1720. He gave evidence of uncommon moral
virtue in early life and was a ripe and liberal scholar. He was
a graduate of Harvard College in 1744 and was ordained over the
West Church and Society in Boston in 1747. He was diligent and
faithful as a religious instructor and probably no clergyman was
more sincerely studious to promote the moral and spiritual welfare
of the people under his charge. For several years he was one of
the most popular and able writers in Massachusetts. But his career
was short as well as brilliant, he died at the age of forty-six
much esteemed and lamented. His brother Zachariah was a preacher
at Martha's Vineyard ordained in 1767, and died in 1807 at the
advanced age of 89 years. Thus the sacerdotal order continued
unbroken upwards of 160 years."
Experience, at the age of fifty at the death of his second wife, never remarried. The are of the younger children was left to the older sisters. In any case, He was the dominant influence on the children, especially the first twenty years of Jonathan's life. Experience at this time wrote "Indian Converts: Or Some Account of the Lives and Dying Speeches of a Considerable Number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard,"
It was published in London in 1727 with an
"Attestation" signed by eleven of the Boston clergy,
including Cotton Mather. It was an attempt to interest an international
audience in Indian missions by what amounted to human-interest
stories about the religious experiences of the Indians and, thereby,
to promote this work.
Experience, fifty at the death of his second
wife, never remarried. In any case, he was the dominant influence
on the first twenty years of Jonathan's life.
See continuation of this lineage in the Wing Line and West Line.
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