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Battle of Clontarf By Morgan Llewelyn
The land over which Brian Boru had made himself High King, or Ard Ri was still heavily forested and rich in natural resources. Cattle were the economic backbone of the country. Viking-built trading cities such as Dublin and Limerick were exceptions; Ireland remained rural, dependent upon the land, suspicious of urban life.
Social structure was complex. A High King ruled from Meath, exerting varying degrees of power, dependent upon his personal strength, upon the provincial kings of Munster, Ulster Connacht, and Leinster, who in turn claimed tribute from their under-kings, or clan chieftains. Alliances shifted like the turn of the tide. Until Brian Boru rose from obscurity to become first king of Munster, then of Ireland, there had been no sense of national purpose or even of nationhood at all, the land merely being a large island which held a variety of frequently warring tribes. But this was to be expected..
The Gael had, for over a millennium, been a warrior aristocracy in the mould of Homer's Mycenaens. Isolated on an island in the Atlantic, they had long been accustomed to earning their claims to heroism and keeping their battle skills sharp by fighting one another. Sometimes their warfare was little more than stylised ritual; sport. Often it was more savage. The advent of the Danes and Norsemen had introduced a new element as issues of trade and taxation, as well as landholding, further divided the people.
Though historians may always argue about his character and motives, Brian the son of Cinneide, prince of the Dal Caid, was undeniably a man ahead of his time.
Although upon coming to power originally he made his goal the destruction of the foreigners, he was gifted with a larger view. In time he realised that the Scandinavians - who did not call themselves Vikings, as Viking was a verb describing raiding and plunder - had been in Ireland for centuries. They were well established here, they had put down roots and intermarried. Their art forms had enriched indigenous art forms, their trade had become important to Ireland's economy. In short, they could not simply be driven out.
They could, however, be made Irish. Brian Boru saw as no man had before him that this involved thinking of Ireland as nation. He even went so far as to style himself Emperor of the Irish in the Book of Armagh, in his effort to unify the land into a prosperous coalescence of its differing inhabitants. His was the first and most nearly successful of all attempts to create a strong, self-sufficient unity here, drawing upon the various strengths and talents of individual tribes and races. His dream would die with him at Clontarf on Good Friday, 1014, drowned in blood as Gael and Dane on one side fought Gale and Dane on the other, unable to agree on anything but plunder and vengeance.
To reach Clontarf Brian Boru - dreamer, opportunist, ruthless pragmatist , skilled harper, accomplished scholar, accomplished warrior - had led an army across the midsection of Ireland, drawing additional supporters as he went.
In spite of his efforts he had made to introduce a form of cavalry, most warriors still fought on foot, and barefoot at that. Battle-dress was as individualistic as the men themselves. Some wore simple saffron-dried tunics with woollen cloaks or shaggy mantles. Others had body protection in the form of boiled leather fitted to the torso, or the occasional set of chain links taken from a dead Dane. Weapons also varied. Brian himself had mastered the battle-axe, but short swords and spears and slings and clubs were very much in evidence. Then as now, many thought there was no substitute for a stout blackthorn cudgel.
In 1014, as if anticipating trouble with the always-fractious Leinstermen and their allies among the Danes of Dublin, Brian had fortified Thomond. When it became obvious war was inevitable he drew strongly upon support from what are now counties Clare, Limerick and Tipperary. As his army set forth they carried with them a wealth of supplies from the west in terms of material and weaponry, though most of their food must have come from the countryside through which they passed.
It is doubtful if many of the smallholders who watched Brian's army march by had any idea of the issues at stake. Most of the army itself did not. They set out singing marching songs, excited by the opportunities for glory and plunder which battle always provided. Some were undoubtedly frightened, shivering in their cloaks before they were long underway, but unwilling to admit it to their fellows. The indomitable will of the aged but awesome man who led them kept them from deserting, however. Brian Boru was always able to communicate enough of his dream to make men follow him, even against impossible odds. Even against the thousand ships which, it was rumoured, would be sailing into Dublin bay to stand against him. Norse and Dane - white foreigners and black foreigners, as they were called- marched in Brian Boru's army to some extent. They had become Irish.
But against them were arrayed the Leinstermen and their own Scandinavian allies, not only the ships from abroad but the well-fortified city of Dublin itself, ruled by Sitric, the son of Brian Boru's former wife Gormalaith. When Brian Boru set the troublemaking Gormlaith aside he made of her an enemy who would change the history of Ireland. Gormlaith's anger called in the armies who intended to overthrow and destroy Brian Boru. Knowing this, knowing also that as a man of seventy-three he might not survive this battle, even if his followers allowed him to fight personally as he had done the preceding year, Brian marched on.
As his armies passed through the rich central plain of Ireland clans who supported them supplied them with dried meat, cheeses, bread - the last of the so-called 'winter food'. Footsoldiers carried skins of Danish beer, the most popular drink of the common man, but would gladly settle for a cup of buttermilk from a friendly farmer. At night in his leather tent the Ard Rí dined on more sumptuous fare, for he was known for his taste for luxury. Irish stew in 1014 did not contain the now-ubiquitous potato, but consisted of mutton, hare, waterfowl, eel, prawns, mussels, barley, onions and root vegetables, kale seaweeds and watercress, and the sediment, or lees, of red wine. As Ard Rí, Brian Boru undoubtedly flavoured his with imported cinnamon.
He and his fellow chieftains were richly attired in pleated shirts of bleached linen, vests embroidered with gold thread, form fitting tunics and trews, and crested helmets. Their shields boasted bronze bosses and were swagged with elegant chains. Their spear-heads glittered atop shafts of white hazel. The Ireland they knew was wealthy and worth fighting for.
An important factor in determining the outcome of the battle would be whether Malachy Mór, whom Brian had overthrown to become Ard Rí. would stand with Brian's forces as he had in the past. Their alliance was fragile. Both had wanted the High Kingship; both had once been married to the same woman, Gormlaith of Leinster. But without the help of Malachy and his Meathmen Brian would be dangerously outnumbered.
All of these thoughts must have run through the old King's head as he and his armies advanced on Dublin, their ranks swelled by welcome additions from Connacht, which had proved a staunch ally. But whatever unity Brian had forged among those who considered themselves Irish was about to undergo its most severe test against rebellious Maelmors of Leinster and his foreign allies. Should Brian win, he intended to establish a stable dynasty to replace the strife-fraught custom of alternate kingship and fragmented leadership. Ireland could then present a unified face and proven military might to the rest of the world. It would no longer appear a temptingly easy target for plunder by foreign kings. Ireland could anticipate a similar future to that which Charlemagne had won for his land.
The tapestry of tribes who followed Brian Boru were not thinking in these terms, of course. They had neither his education nor his vision. They simply prayed to God for victory and dreamed of the loot they would take as their share of the spoils. So they marched through that muddy, rainy spring, to converge upon Clontarf. Good Friday, 1014.
Chapter two soon.
Kingdom of Airghialla
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Background on the Three Collas
Ancient Irish tradition tells us that Airghialla (or Oriel) was a territory in northern Ireland founded by the three Collas about the 4th century of the Christian Era, and inhabited by their descendants in later centuries. As is the case with much of Irish saga prior to the 6th century keep in mind the line between myth and history is unclear. The term Airgialla is translated as 'those who give hostages', alluding to a subordinate status of the various groups inhabiting the area. Contemporary writers, e.g. O'Rahilly and Byrne, suggest the three Collas are mere doublets of the three sons of Niall Noigiallach who conquered portions of early Ulster, their names being Eogan, Conall and Enda.
The three sons of Eochaid Duibhlein and Aileach, a daughter of the King of Alba, all bore the name of Colla - Colla Uais, Colla Meann and Colla da Crich (Fochríth). The designation Colla, meaning strong man, was "imposed on them for rebelling," their original names being Cairsall, Aodh and Muredach, respectively. The three Collas went to Scotland to obtain the assistance of their kindred to place Colla Uais on the Irish throne, and with their help placed him there, but he was compelled to give way to a relative, Muredach Tirech, who had a better title to the sovereignty.
The three Collas made war with the High King of Ireland, Fiachadh, and overthrew and killed him in order to sieze the Kingship for Colla Uais, which he enjoyed for four years. Muiredach Tirech, the son of the slain king Fiachadh, overthrew the three Collas and their followers. About the year 327 the three Collas were exiled to Alba (Scotland). They were received into their maternal grandfather's court, the court of the Scots and Picts.
The Irish Annals record for the year of our Lord 322 cite, "Fiacha(dh) Sraibhtine, after having been thirty seven years as king over Ireland, was slain by the Collas, in the battle of Dubhchomar, in Crioch Rois, in Breagh." The annals further record for the year 323, "The first year of Colla Uais, son of Eochaidh Doimhlen, as king over Ireland." For the year 327 the annals state, "The fourth year of Colla Uais, in the sovereignty of Ireland, when Muireadhach Tireach expelled him and his brothers into Alba (Scotland) with three hundred along with them." The annals continue for the same year, "At the end of this year the three Collas came (back) to Ireland; and there lived not of their forces but thrice nine persons only. They then went to Muireadhach, having been instructed by a druid. And they scolded at him, and expressed evil words, that he might kill them, and that it might be on him the curse of the finghal should alight. As he did not oppose them, they tarried with him, and were faithful to him."
"It was when Muiredeach Tireach, grandson of Carbri of the Liffey, was High King of Ireland, that Ulster was despoiled and broken by his nephews, the three Collas, who, on the ruins of the old kingdom of Uladh, founded a new kingdom - of Oirgialla (Oriel) which was henceforth for nearly a thousand years to play an important part in the history of Northern Ireland."
"The Collas first went to their kin in Connaught [King Muiredeach] and there gathered a great army for the invasion of Ulster. On the plain of Farney in Monaghan they met the Ulstermen under their king, Fergus, and on seven successive days broke battle upon them, finally slaying Fergus and putting the Ultach (Ulstermen) to complete rout. Of the conquered portion of Ulster, from Louth in the south to Derry in the north, and from Loch Neagh to Loch Erne, the Collas made themselves the new kingdom of Oirgialla (Oriel)."
The Irish Annals record for the year of our Lord 331, "The battle of Achadh Leithdheirg, in Fearnmhagh (Farney), was fought by the three Collas against the Ulstermen, in which fell Fearghus Fogha, son of Fraechar Foirtriun, the last king of Ulster, who resided at Eamhain. They afterwards burned Eamhain [Macha], and the Ulstermen did not dwell therein since. They also took from the Ulstermen that part of the province extending from the Righe and Loch nEathach (Neagh) westwards. Colla Meann fell in this battle. [source: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005A/text030.html]
Geoffrey Keating adds in his History that "On that occasion, the Collas wrested the following territority from the Ultonians [men of Ulster], namely, Modharnuigh, Ui Criomthainn, and Ui Mac Uais. Colla Meann took possession of Modharnuigh, and Colla da Chrioch of Ui Criomhthainn, and Colla Uais of Ui Mac Uais. And Muireadhach Tireach fell by Caolbhaidh son of Cronn Badhraoi." Click here for a Physical Map of the Ulster region.
The descended Groups and Families of the Three Collas
Colla-da-Chrioch - The first king of Arghialla would be Colla-da-Chrioch (aka Colla Fochríth).
The Book of Ballymote cites Síl Colla Focrích; of this stock are: Airthera, Rigradh Dartraighe Coindinse, Ui Meth, Fir Fernmuighe, Fir Manach, Fir Lemna, Síl Duibtiri, Ui Briuin Archoill, Fir Roiss, Ui Maine, Fir Dubhshlat, Ui Cennfhada, Ui mic Brocc, Ui Echach bega, Ui Echach móra, Ui Dortaind, Ui Níalláin, Ui Conaill, Ui Bresail of Macha and of Mughdorn, Ui Cremthaind, and Ui Luain, with relatives.
Colla Focrích (Colla-da-Chrioch) had four sons noted here; Imchad, Findchad, Rochaid, Fiachra Cassán.
From Imchad came Muiredach Méth, a quo Uí Méith. According to early genealogies, the Uí Maine Connacht are also descended from Imchad. From Rochad descended the Cenél Rochada, that is the Fernmuigi and Síl Daim Argait and Uí Briúin ar Chaill and Uí Labrada and Dál n-Uaich (Oaich) and Uí Chremthainn and Uí Meic Brócc and Uí Tuathail. From Fiachra Cassán descended the Síl Fiachra Cassán, that is the Airthir of Ard Macha and Uí Breasail and Uí Nialláin and Uí Dorthain and Uí Eochada and Uí Cruind and Uí Trena.
Colla Uais had sons named Eachach and Ercc. From Colla Uais descended the Uí Meic Uais and Uí Tuirtri and Uí Cormaic and Uí Dáire and Ui Fiacrach Arda Sratha and Cenél Meic Cárthind and Cenél mBecce and Cenél Raithne and Cenél n-Erchoil.
The Book of Ballymote cites Síl Colla Uais, i.e. Ui Mac Uais, Ui Tuírtre, Fir Luirg, Ui Fiacrach Arda Sratha, Ui Mic Cairthaind, Fir na tri leth, Fir Leitreach, Fir Lugaidh, Fir in Muighe, Ui Tabarna, Fir in Chláir, Ui Mic Cairthaind of L. Febail, and the Fir ili (Fir Li?)
Colla Menn had sons named Mennit Chruthnech and Mugdorn Dub di Ultaib. From Colla Meann descended the Mughdorna and the Dál Mennat.
From Colla-da-Chrioch are claimed to descend some of these noble families of Ulster and elsewhere - Boylan, Brassil, Cahil, Callaghan, Carbery, Carey, Carroll, Cassidy, Conan, O'Connor, Corrigan, Cosgrave, Devine, O'Donnell, Donnelly, Duffy, Dwyer, Fogarty, Garvey, Gavin, Hanlon, Hart, Higgins, Hollgan, Kelly, Kennedy, Keogh, Lane, Larkin, Leahy, Lynch, MacCabe, MacDaniel, MacKenna, MacMahan, MacManus, Madigan, Madden, Maguire, Malone, Mitchell, Mooney, Muldoon, Norton, Orr, Traynor, Tully, etc.
Airghialla, the Tribes of the Three Collas
The Airghialla were a loose federation of tuath, largely located in the modern province of Ulster. Their territory, depending on timeframe, included much of what includes the modern counties of Monaghan, Armagh and Fermanagh. In addition, other places where Arghialla groups have been noted included areas within the modern counties of Tyrone, Cavan, Meath, Westmeath, Louth, and Derry. The Airghialla federation included Uí Cremthainn, Uí Méith, Uí Tuirtre, Uí Meic Uais, Uí Fiachra Ard Sratha, Mughdorna, Uí Meic Cáirthinn, Airthir, Fernmhaighe, and Fir Lí, among other terms descriptive of tribal groupings and territories.
The Book of Fenagh states the sub-territories of Airgialla were: Ui Nialláin (Oneilland baronies, co. Armagh.); Ui Bresail (now in the baronies of Oneilland); Ui Echach (baronies of Iveagh, co. Down); Ui Meith [Macha] (parishes of of Tullycorbet, Kilmore and Tehallan. co. Monaghan.); Ui Tortain (around Ardbraccan, co. Meath); Ui Briuin Archaill (in the barony of Dungannon, co. Tyrone); Trí Tuatha (here comprising Fir Lemna, Ui Cremthainne and Síl Dubthir of Lct.); Dartraige, alias Dartraige Coininnsi (barony of Dartry, c. Monaghan.); Fera Manach (Fermanagh), Fernmag (barony of Farney, co. Monaghan.); Mugdorn and Ross (Cremorne with the parish of Carrickmacross, and parish of Clonany, co. Monaghan., and adjoining parts of Louth and Meath undefined).
Noted chiefs of Airghialla included Ua Laidhgnén (O'Leighnin?), Ua Éiccnigh (O'Heany or Hegney), Ua Cerbhaill (O'Carroll), Ua Baígelláin (O'Boylan), Ua Anluain (O'Hanlon), Mac Mathgamna (MacMahon), among others.
A steady push by the Cenél nEógain in the 7th and 8th centuries reduced the size of the Aighiallan federation as the people of northern Airghialla came to be treated as sub-kingdoms of the Cenél nEógain. During a similar period the southern branches of the Airghialla came under the dominion of the southern Uí Néill kingdoms of Mide and Brega. By the 9th century Airgialla proper, as a political entity, was practically confined to the modern counties Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, and part of Louth, with the Uí Thuirtri kingdom in east Tyrone in process of being absorbed into the Cenél nEógain over-kingdom of Ailech.
In the 12th century the Ua Cearbhaill (O'Carroll) were prominent among the kings of Arghialla. By the 13th century the family of MacMahon (MacMathghamhna) held the superior authority with the title king of Oirghialla (Oriel), by that time a much reduced sub-kingdom.
An early O Cearbhaill genealogy: (Book of Leinster)
Donchadh m. Con caisil m. Donaill m. Matgamna m. Laedcen m. Cearbhaill m. Mael Poil m. Fogartach m. Ruadrach m. Mail fogartaigh m. Airach m. Aithecda m. Mael duib m. Cronan m. Fergusa m. Nad sluaig
A Meg Mathgamna genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Pilip m. Briain m. Aeda m. Roailbh m. Eachada m. Mathgamna m. Neill m. Donnchada m. Concaisil m. Domnaill m. Mathgamna (onabar Meg Mathgamna) m. Fogartaich m. Ruadrach m. Mailifothardaig m. Artraid m. Echach m. Maelduibh m. Mailfogartaich m. Ronain m. Fergusa m. Nadsluaigh.
Another Meg Mathgamna genealogy: (Leabhar Donn)
Ardgail m. Briain m. Aeda m. Rouilb m. Echadha m. Mathgamna m. Neill m. Magnusa m. Matgamna m. Neill m. Dondchada m. Concaisil m. Domnaill m. Mathgamna m. Laidgnen m. Cerbaill m. Mailpoil m. Fogartaig m. Ruarach m. Mailfogartaigh m. Mailduin m. Mailfogartaig m. Ronain m. Fergusa m. Natsluaig m. Cairbri doim argit m. Echach m. Crimthaind m. Feig m. Degad druin m. Rochada m. Colla Fo Crich.
As chiefs, or royal heirs, of the Airghialla (Orghialla or Oriel) area, the Irish Annals cite:
- For 513, Colga, son of Loite, son of Crunn, son of Feidhlimidh, [grand?]son of Colla Dachrich, chief of Airghialla.
- For 514, Cairpre Daim Airgit son of Eochu son of Crimthann son of Fiach son of Daig Duirn son of Reochad son of Colla Dá Crích, king of Airgialla, died.
- For 560, Daimhin Damhairgitr, i.e. Cairbre, died. From him are the Airghialla.
- For 594, Béc son of Cuanu, king of Airgialla, fell. [a quo Cenel mBecce of clann Colla Uais]
- For 606, Aedh, son of Colgan, chief of Oirghialla and of all the Airtheara.
- For 636, Maelodhar Macha, chief of Oirghialla, died.
- For 675, Dúnchad son of Ultán, chief of Oirghialla, was slain by Mael Dúin son of Mael Fithrigh. [Cenel Mac Cairthaind]
- For 695, Maol Fothartaigh, mac Maolduibh, [descent from Carpri Daim Argait] tigherna na n-Airghiall, died.
- For 825, Cumascach son of Cathal, lord of Airghialla. [Sil Duibthiri of clann Colla Uais]
- For 832, Artri mac Conchobhar, brother of the King of Oirghialla, Abbot of Ard Macha, died.
- For 835, Gofraidh, son of Fearghus, chief of Oirghialla, went to Alba, to strengthen the Dal Riada, at the request of Cinaeth, son of Ailpin.
- For 850, Fogartach son of Mael Bresail, lord of Oirghialla, died.
- For 851, Maelcaurarda, son of Maelbreasail, lord of Ui Mic Uais Oirghiall, died.
- For 852, Fogertach m. Maele Bresail, rex na n-Airghialla, died.
- For 874, Congalach son of Fínnechta, king of the Airgialla, dies. [Sil Daimini]
- For 882, Maelpadraig, son of Maelcuararda, lord of Airghialla, was slain by the Airghialla themselves.
- For 901, Laidhgnen, mac Donnagáin, tighearna Fernmhaighe, was slain.
- For 914, Mael Muire mac Flannacain, rigdomna na n-Airghialla.
- For 917, Maol Craoibhe ua Duibh Sionaich, tighearna Oirghiall.
- For 947, Fógartach, mac Donnagáin, tighearna Oirghiall, dies.
- For 960, Dunchadh, mac Laeghaire, tighearna Fernmhaighe, died.
- For 961, Éicnech son of Dálach, king of Airgialla died.
- For 970, Donnacán son of Maelmuire, king of Airgialla, fell.
- For 988, Laidhgnén, mac Cearbhaill, rí Fernnmuighe, was slain.
- For 993, Conghalach, mac Laidhgnen, .i. ua Gadhra, tigherna Gaileng, dies.
- For 998, Mac Éiccnigh, mic Dalaigh, tigherna Airghiall was slain by mac h-Ui Ruairc.
- For 1022, Mac Léiginn son of Cairell, king of Airgialla, rested as penitent.
- For 1022, Mathgamain mac Laidhgnen, maic Cerbaill, rí Fernmuighe.
- For 1027, Cathalan-Ua-Crichain, lord of Fearnmhagh, and of the Airghialla in general, fell.
- For 1048, Gilla Coluim grandson of Eicnech, overking of Airgialla,rested.
- For 1051, Laidhgnen m. Maelain, ri Gaileng.
- For 1053, Lethlobur h-Úa Laidhgnén, rig Oirghiall, was killed.
- For 1065, Leochán mac Laidhgnen ri Gaileng, was slain.
- For 1078, Lethlobhar Ua Laidhgnén, tigherna (and airdri) Airghiall, was slain.
- For 1093, Aodh Ua Baígelláin, tigherna Airghiall, was slain by the Conaillibh Muirthemhne.
- For 1093, Flann Ua h-Ainbhidh, tigherna Deisceirt Airghiall, died.
- For 1094, O h-Ainbhidh, tigherna Oirghiall.
- For 1096, Flann Ua hAinbhidh, lord of South Airghialla, died.
- For 1099, Ruaidhri Ua Ruadhacan, tigherna Airthir Oirghiall.
- For 1101, Cú Caisil Ua Cerbhaill, tigherna Fernmhaighe & Oirghiall.
- For 1119, Flaithbertach Ua Laidhgnen ri Fernmhuighi (Fernmaighe, Fermoy).
- For 1127, Giolla Criost Ua h-Eiccnigh, tighearna Fear Manach & Airghiall.
- For 1154/64/68, Donnchaidh Uí Chearbhaill, tigherna Oirghiall.
- For 1169/78, Murchadh Ua c-Cearbhaill, tigherna Oirghiall.
- For 1201, And the North of Ireland was defeated and Ua Eicnigh, arch-king of Airgialla and many others were lost.
- For 1243, Gilla-Patraig Ua Anluain, king of Oirgialla, was killed.
- For 1273, Eochaid Mac Mathgamna, king of Oriel, was killed.
- For 1311, Brian Mag Mathgamna, king of Oriel, died.
- For 1342, Seoan Mag Mathgamna, king of Oriel, was killed.
- For 1344, Aed son of Roulb Mag Mathgamna, king of Oriel, died this year.
- For 1357, Magnus Mag Mathgamna, king of Oriel, died.
- For 1372, Brian Mor Mag Mathgamna, high-king of Oriel, fell at the hands of one of his own gallowglasses.
- For 1416, Ardgal son of Brian Mor Mag Mathgamna, king of Oriel, died
Uí Cremthainn - the territory about eastern Co. Fermanagh and northern Co. Monaghan. The early genealogies state the Uí Chremthaind were descendants of one of the three Collas, i.e. Colla Fochríth. An early genealogy shows descent from Crimthann liath (from whom Uí Crimthainn), son of Fiac, a son of Deach Dorn, son of Rochad, son of Colla da Crich (aka Colla Fochríth). In effect, the Uí Cremthainn consisted of multiple groups, and were considered part of the overall Airghialla confederation.
Some of the prominent descendants from Crimthann liath included, among others, the Clann Nadsluaig of modern co. Monaghan (O'Carroll, McMahon, ...), the Clann Lugain of co. Fermanagh (Maguire, McManus, ...), the Clann Ceallaigh (MacDonnell, ...) of co. Monaghan, and the Sil nDamine of co. Fermanagh (Mael Ruanaigh, ...). Each of these were descended through Cairpre Dam Argait, a grandson of Crimthann liath.
Three of the sons of Cairpre are noted here, that is, Cormac (a quo clann Cormaic, clann Lugain, Muintir Pheodachain, Muintir Caeman, clann Fergaile), Daimine (a quo Sil nDamine, Síl Tuathail an Tuaiscirt, clann Cellaig, Mac Maolruanaig, et al) and Nadsluag (a quo clann Nadsluaig, Ua Cearbhaill, Ua Mathgamna, et al). From clann Lugain the prominent families of Ua hÉicnigh, Mag Uidhir and Mac Maghnuis are noted, among others.
In the late 10th and early 11th centuries the sept of Mael Ruanaigh are noted in the annals as kings of Cremthainn, although this appears to be a reference to the district of Cremthann in Connacht. The Mac Murchadha family were prominent as lords of Truagh in northern Monaghan in the barony of Trough, before being overshadowed by the MacKenna(n) sept, of the southern Ui Neill. Included among the prominent Aighialla families were the Ua Baigeallain (O Boylan) of Sil Maeluidir in the area of Dartraige (Darty, western co. Monaghan).
An early genealogy of Sil Daimine: (Rawlinson)
Daimíne, son of Cairpre Dam Argait, son of Eocho, son of Crimthann Lethan, son of Fiacc, son of Daig Duirn, son of Rochaid, son of Colla Fochríth (da-Chrioch).
An early genealogy for Clann Nadsluaigh: (Rawlinson)
Nadsluaigh, son of Cairpre Dam Argait, son of Eocho, son of Crimthann Lethan, son of Fiacc, son of Daig Duirn, son of Rochaid, son of Colla Fochríth (da-Chrioch).
An early genealogy for Clann Lugain: (Rawlinson)
Lugain, son of Irgalach, son of Eignich, son of Cormac, son of Fergus, son of Aed, son of Cormac, son of Cairpre Dam Argait.
An early genealogy for Clann Ceallaigh: (Rawlinson)
Ceallach, son of Tuathal, son of Maelduin, son of Tuadan, son of Tuathal, son of Daimíne, son of Cairpre Dam Argait.
The Annals cite for the term Cremthainn:
- For the year of the world 4169, Sláine la h-Uibh Cremthainn.
- For 650, Cumascach, mac Oiliolla, toisech Ua Cremthainn
- For 656, Cumascach mac Ailello, rí h-Ua Cremthainn.
- For 734, Ailill, son of Tuathal, Lord of Ui Crimhthainn, died.
- For 738, Maenach, son of Connalach, Lord of Ui Creamhthainn, was slain.
- For 781, Colggu m. Cellaigh, ri H. Cremhtain.
- For 832, Ruaidhri, son of Maelfothartach, half chieftain of Ui Crimhthainn, died.
- For 848, Braon, mac Ruadhrach, tigherna Ua Crumthainn, and his two brothers, Fogartach and Bruadar, were slain by their own tribe.
- For 867, Muiredach son of Cathal, king of Uí Cremthainn, died of long paralysis.
- For 867, Cian, son of Eochaidh, lord of Creamthainn, died.
- For 875, Cumascach, son of Muireadhach, lord of the Ui Cremhthainn, was slain.
- For 876, Maelcaere, lord of Ui Cremthainn, died.
- For 885, Anrothan, son of Murchadh, lord of Ui Crimhthainn, died.
- For 899, Fubhthadh, mac Murchadha, tighearna Ua Criomhthannáin.
- For 915, Ferghal, mac Muirigein, taoiseach Ua c-Cremthainn.
- For 921, Céle mac Ansothain, tighearna Ua Criomhthannáin, died.
- For 923, Flaithchius, mac Scoracháin, tighearna Ua Criomhthannáin, died.
- For 998, Maol Sechlaind ua Maol Ruanaidh, tigherna Ua Cremhthainn. [Connacht?]
- For 999, Mael Sechlainn h-úa Mael Ruanaigh ri Cremthaindi [Connacht?]
- For 1030, Mael Seachlainn H. Mael Ruanaigh, ri Crimthainn. [Connacht?]
- For 1030, Maol Sechlainn ua Maol Ruanaidh, tigherna Midhe & Cremthainne. [Connacht?]
- For 1036, Maelechlainn Ua Maelruanaidh, tigherna Cremhthainne. [Connacht?]
- For 1064, Muirchertach Ua Néill, tigherna Tealcha Occ, was slain by the h-Uibh c-Cremthainn.
- For 1071, Lorcán mac Flaithniadh Ui Duibh, tigherna Ua Cremhthannáin.
Mugdorna - Co. Monaghan. The Mugdorna territory stretched from Monaghan, where it is preserved in the name Cremourne (Crích Mugdorna "the territory of the Mughdorn"), south to as far as the river Boyne at Navan. As noted in entries in the Annals below, the territory of Mugdorna in the 9th and early 10th centuries was divided into Mughdorn Maighean and Mughdhorn Breagh, indicating a division of north and south, with Breagh referring to an area in or near eastern co. Meath.
The early chiefs of Mugdorna are stated to be descendants of one of the Three Collas, i.e. Colla Mend. In its history the area originally referred to as Mughdorna was eventually sub-divided into the smaller kingdoms of Ui Meith, Dartraige (now Dartry), Fir Fearnmhaigh (now Farney), Conailli (now part of co. Louth) , Fir Ros (now the area about Carrickmacross), and Mugdorna [now Cremorne]. Refer to other sections on this page for more information on the ruling septs of these regions. The Ua Machainen sept are noted in the annals as lords of Mughdhorn in the 11th and early 12th centuries, probabaly at a time when the region of Mughdhorna was more limited in size, possibly centering on the barony of Cremorne in co. Monaghan. The Ua Machainen's (O'Mochoidhein) are also mentioned in O'Dugans famous topographical poem.
An early genealogy of Sil Colla Mend, which appears to relate to the Ua Machainen of Mughdorn: (Book of Ballymote)
Maelruanaid and Congalda m. Gillacrist m. Amlaimh m. Aillene m. Osene m. Scolaigi m. Machainen m. Suibne m. Artraich m. Aillene m. Mailail m. Mailbresail m. Maelduin m. Aillene m. Ail m. Misene m. Fergusa m. Duach m. Breasail.
The Annals cite for Mughdorn:
- For 694, Cummeni of Mughdhorna (Cremorne) died.
- In 754, Reachtabhrat, mac Dunchon, tigherna Mughdhorn, died.
- For 759, Rechtabrad maic Dunchon, ríg Mugdhorn.
- For 773, Dunchadh mac Alene, tigherna Mughdorn.
- For 774, Aengas, mac Aileni, tigherna Mughdhorn, died.
- For 797/802, Artri, son of Ailill, lord of Mughdhorna Maighean (Cremorne), died.
- For 807, Cernach mac Flaithnia tigherna, Mughdorn m-Breacch, died.
- For 812/16, Cathal mac Artrach, tigherna Mughdhorn.
- For 847/49, Mael Bresail, mac Cernaigh, tigherna Mughdhorn was slain.
- For 848/50, Aonghus, mac Suibhne, tigherna Mughdhorn was slain.
- For 867, Cernach, mac Eathach, tighearna Mughdhorn m-Bregh, died.
- For 869, Cearnach, son of Eochaidh, lord of Mughdhorn Breagh, died.
- For 880, Ainbhith, son of Mughron, lord of Mughdhorn Breagh, was slain.
- For 955, Alene, rí Mugdorn Magen & Mugdorn Bregh.
- For 978, Lachtnán, tigherna Mughdhorn Maighen.
- For 997, Oissine ua Machainén, tigherna Mughdorn, was slain.
- For 1009, Donn Cuan Ua Machainen, tighearna Mughdhorn.
- For 1020, Gillaciarain, son of Oisen, king of Mughdhorna during the space of one day, was slain by the Uí-mic-Uais-Bregh.
- For 1053, Amhlaoibh Ua Macainén, tigherna Mughdhorn, died.
- For 1062, Giolla Chiaráin Ua Machainen, tigherna Mughdhorn, slays Donn Cuan.
- For 1110, Maol Ruanaidh Ua Machanéin, tigherna Mughdhorn.
Fernmag, or Fernmaighe - The area around Lough Ooney, aka Loch Uaithne near Smithborough in the barony of Dartry, co. Monaghan, was apparently referred to at an early date as Fernmag or Fer Fernmaighe (or part of). Later migration to southeast county Monaghan apparently brought the territorial name with it (Farney). An early genealogy of Fernmaigi goes back to one of the three Collas, i.e. Colla Fochríth (aka Colla Da Crich). Uí Lorcáin and Uí Chríochain (O'Creehan) appear in the annals as chiefs of Fernmhaighe (Farney) in the 11th century. O'Dugan (Poems) mentions O'Criodain and O hAedha over groups in Feara Fearnmaighe. The O'Carrolls are cited as overlords of Oriel in this area by the 12th century. MacMahon (MacMathghamhna) were noted as chiefs here in the 13th century.
O'Kieran (Ó Ciaráin) is given as a chief of Fearnmuigh by the writer O'Dugan as a clan of Tir Eoghan.
An early Genelach Fernmaigi: (Laud 610) Lethlobor m. Fogartaig m. Muiredaig m. Laidgnen m. Fogartaig m. Donnacain m. Fogartaig m. Ruadrach m. Mailfothardaig m. Arthraich m. Aithechda m. Mailduib m. Mailfothardaig m. Cronain m. Fergusa m. Nadsluaig m. Daim argait m. Echach m. Cremthaind Leith m. Feicc m. Dega Duirn m. Rochatha m. Colla Fochrich m. Echdach Doimlen.
Another early Genelach Fernmaigi: (Rawlinson B502) Lethlobur m. Fogartaich m. Muiredaich m. Laidcnén m. Fogartaich m. Ruadrach m. Artach m. Aithechdai m. Máel Fothardaig m. Máel Duib m. Crónáin m. Fergusa m. Nad Sluaig m. Cairpri Daim Argait m. Echdach m. Crimthaind Léith m. Féicc m. Dega Duirn m. Rochada m. Colla Fochríth m. Echdach Domplíuin.
Another Fernmuigi genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Leathlobar m. Focarta m. Laidhgnen m. Foghartaich m. Artraich m. Aichedada m. Maelduibh m. Ronain m. Fergosa m. Nadsluaig m. Cairpri Daim Airgit m. Echach m. Creamhthaind Leth m. Feic m. Dedhga Durn m. Rochada m. Colla Da Crich.
The annals cite:
- For 643, The death of Cuanu son of Cailcin, king of Fernmag. (Ulster?)
- U719, The killing in Loch Uaithne of the two lords, i.e. two sons of Mael Fothartaig, with their kinsman, namely Cremthann Corrach.
- M849. Caireall, son of Ruadhrach, lord of Loch Uaithne, was slain by the Conaille.
- U851, Cairell son of Ruaidrí, king of Loch Uaithne, was deceitfully killed by the Conaille of Fernmag before the oratory of Tigernach in Cluain Eóis.
- For 910, Maol Muire mac Flannaccáin, tighearna Fearnmhaighe.
- For 960, Dunchadh mac Laeghaire, tighearna Fernmhaighe.
- M1025, A predatory excursion was made by Cathalan, lord of Fearnmhagh, against the Feara-Manach. A predatory excursion was made by the Feara-Manach to Loch-Uaithne, and they burned and slew seventeen men on the margin of the lake.
- For 1039, Mac Ruaidhri, tigherna Fernmaighe.
- For 1062, Ruaidhri, mac Con Cairge, tanaisi Fernmhaighe.
- For 1078, Mac Giolla Dhídhe Uí Lorcáin, tigherna Fernmhaighe.
- For 1079, Cú Midhe, mac Lorcáin, tigherna Fernmhaighe.
- For 1080, Donn Ua Lethlobhair, tigherna Fernmhaighe.
- For 1080, Eochaidh Ua Merlígh, tigherna Fernmhuíghe
- U1089, The joint lords of the men of Fernmagh, and a multitude besides, were killed by the Uí Echach and the Ulaid in Sliab Fuaid.
- For 1089, Aedha Uí Chríochain, tigherna Fernmhaighe.
- U1093, Aed ua Baighellán, king of Fernmagh, was killed.
- For 1097, Lochlainn Ua Duibh Dara, tigherna Fernmaighe, was slain by the Uibh Briuin Bréifne.
- For 1101, Cú Caisil Ua Cerbhaill, tigherna Fernmhaighe & Oirghiall.
- For 1119, Flaithbheartach Ua Laidhgnén, tigherna Fernmaighe.
- For 1123, Cu Caisil Ua Cearbhaill, tigherna Fernmhaighe.
- For 1125, Muirchertach Ua Cearbhaill, tigherna Descert Fernmaighe (south Fernmagh).
- For 1131, Cu Midhe Ua Criocháin, tigherna Fernmaighe.
- For 1147, Coin Uladh mac Duinn Shléibhi lá righ n-Uladh i Fernmaighe.
Airthir (Airtheara) - was centered in Co. Armagh, about the eastern baronies of Orior. In earlier times the term Airthir (literally meaing 'east') may have included most of co. Armagh. The early genealogies cite Fiachra Cassán, son Colla Fochríth, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of Airthir in Ard Macha (Armagh). The Airthir had split into the main septs by the 8th century, the Uí Nialláin, the Uí Bressail, and the Uí Echdach. About the 10th century, some of the major groups in the modern co. Armagh region included the Uí Méith, the Uí Nialláin, and the Uí Bresail. In the 12th century, the Irish Annals note Ua Ruadhacain (O'Rogan) as chiefs of Airthir, an area which may have been more restricted in size. The Ua Ruadacháin were noted as chiefs of Uí Eachach (Echdach), tributary to the O'Hanlons at the time, in Smith's The English in Louth 1170-1330.
O'Dugan (Poems) mentions the two kings over Oirtheara as O hIr, and O hAnlauin.
An early Airthir genealogy: (Laud 610)
Úa Bressail Macha and Úa Bresail Airthir, descended from Conchobuir Chorraig m. Mailduin m. Finghin m. Ronain m. Thuathail m. Ailella m. Conaill m. Feicc m. Bressail m. Feidlimthe m. Fiachach m. Colla Fochrich.
For the term 'Airthir', the Annals cite:
- For 520, Colgu Moo Cluethi, king of Airthir.
- For 606, Aedh, son of Colgan, chief of Oirghialla and of all the Airtheara, died.
- For 620, Ronan, son of Tuathal, Lord of the Airtheara.
- For 625, Rónán son of Tuathal, king of Ind Airthir, died.
- For 639, Mael Odhar Cáech, rí Oirther, died.
- For 696, Conchobhar Macha son of Maelduin, chief of the Airtheara (Oriors).
- For 718, Egnech, son of Colgan, chief of the Airthera (the Oriors).
- For 738, Cumascach, son of Conchubhar, Lord of the Airtheara, was slain.
- For 748, Congal, son of Eigneach, lord of the Airtheara, was slain.
- For 791, Donngal son of Buachaill, king of Int Airthir, died.
- For 807, The slaying of Artgal son of Cathasach, king of Uí Chruinn of Airthir.
- For 831, Diarmuid, mac Ruadhrach, tigherna Airthir Life, died.
- For 863, Muiredhach mac Maele Duin ri na n-Airther.
- For 864/66, Cearnachan, son of Cumasgach, lord of Rath Airthir.
- For 893, Maelagrai, son of Gairbhith, lord of the Airtheara, was slain.
- For 912, Cernachán son of Duiligén, heir designate of Int Airthir, was put to death.
- For 933, Céilecán son of Gairbíth, chief of Int Airthir, died.
- For 951/53, Ruadacán, mac Eitigén, tighearna Airthir Gaileng.
- For 989, Echmílid son of Rónán, king of Int Airthir, was killed.
- For 1077, Ua Célecán, heir designate of Airthir, was killed.
- For 1099, Ruaidrí ua Ruadacán, king of Airthir of Airgialla, and the flower of the kings of Ireland, ended his life in the forty-fifth year of his rule.
- For 1159, Murchadh Ua Ruadhacain, king of the Airthir, died.
- For 1181, Aedh Mac Murchadha, royal chief of Muinnter-Birn and the Airthir and the Cantred, was killed by Mac Mathgamna in treachery, at a meeting.
Uí Nialláin (Clan Cernaich) - The baronies of Oneilland East and West in modern county Armagh seems to have have derived their name from the ancient territory of Uí Nialláin. From an early date the Airthir kings of the Ui Nialláin sept ruled from Loch Cal (Loughgall) just north of Armagh. The Ua hAnluain (O'Hanlon) sept, among others, were noted as chiefs of Ui Niallain as early as the 10th century. They continued as chiefs in the area of the Oriors for the next few centuries.
An early Uí Nialláin genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Muiredach m. Cernaich m. Cummascaich m. Ailella et Lorccán m. Ailella m. Cummascaich m. Cernaig m. Suibne m. Éicnich m. Dálaich m. Colgcan m. Suibne m. Rónáin et Fer Dá Chrích m. Suibne m. Crundmáel m. Rónáin m. Báetáin m. Muiredaich m. Éogain m. Nialláin m. Féicc m. Feidelmid m. Fiachrach Cassáin m. Collai Fochríth.
An early Uí Nialláin genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Muirceartach m. Concocaich m. Ruaidri m. Aedha m. Ceallaich m. Muirchertaich m. Lorcain m. Aililla m. Cumascaich m. Cernaich m. Suibne m. Ecuich m. Colcan m. Suibne m. Ronain m. Baedan m. Muireadaich m. Eogain m. Niallain m. Feic m. Feidlimidh m. Fiachach Casan m. Colla Da Crich.
An early O'hAnluain genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Flaithbertach m. Diarmada m. Aeda m. Floind m. Anluan m. Diarmada m. Coscraidh m. Suibne m. Eignigh m. Colgan m. Suibne m. Ronain m. Baedain.
The Annals cite:
- For 457, Ard Machab (Armagh) was founded by Saint Patrick, it having been granted to him by Daire, son of Finnchadh, son of Eoghan, son of Niallan.
For 861, Aedh, son of Cumasgach, lord of Ui Niallan, died.
- For 882, Lorcan mac Coscraich, rí Oa Niallan.
- For 981, Loingsech mac Foghartaich, ri H. Niallan.
- For 983, Flaithbhertach ua h-Annluain, tigherna Ua Nialláin, was slain by the Ui Breasail.
- For 1024, Mael Duin ua Con Chaille, ri Ua Niallain, was slain.
- For 1037, Ruaidhri ua Lorcáin, tigherna Ua Nialláin, was slain.
- For 1054, Dubhghall Ua h-Aedhogáin, tigherna Ua Nialláin, was slain by Ua Laithén.
- For 1059, Gilla Domangart Ua Con Chaille ri Ua Niallan.
- For 1111, Donnchadh Ua h-Anluain, tigherna Ua Niallain.
- For 1192, Ardghal Ó hAnluain, king of Uí Nialláin, ... slays the king of Ulaidh.
- For 1245, Murchadh O'hAnluain, king of the Oirrthir, was killed...
- For 1268, Eachmarcach Ua Anluain, king of the Oirthir, was taken prisoner by Walter de Marisco...
- For 1293, Cu-Ulad O'Anluain, king of the Oirrthir... was killed.
- For 1318, Niall O'hAnluain, king of the Oirrthir, was killed...
- For 1321, Manus O'Hanlon, Lord of Orior, was blinded...
- Fro 1391, O'Hanlon, Chief of the Oriors, was treacherously slain by his own kinsmen.
Uí Bresail - northern Armagh. The O'Garvey (O Gairbhith) sept, from the same stock as O'Hanlon, held sway in Armagh on the southern shore of Lough Neagh (Oneilland East) before being displaced by the MacCann's, lords of Clanbrassil. The Annals for 1155 cite Amhlaibh Mac Canna as 'pillar of chivalry and vigour of Cinel Eoghain." Other noted chiefs included O'Keelaghan (O Ceileachain) of Uí Breasil Airthir. O'Dugan (Poems) cites the sept of O'Gairbhith fierce chiefs of Ui-Breasial of Macha, as well as the sept of Mag Duilechain over Clann Breasial. O'Dugan goes on to note the sept of Ui Lorcain over the high eastern Ui-Breasail, and also the septs of the O'Longains, O'Duibheamhnas, and O'Conchobhairs all of the western Ui-Breasail.
MacFirbhis (Book of Genealogies) describes Mac Cana (MacCann) as chief of Cenél Aengusa, in county Armagh at the mouth of the Bann. O'Hart (Pedigrees) indicates the MacCanns (of Co. Armagh) and McMahons (of Co. Monaghan) shared the same Arighiallan ancestry, i.e. in descent from descended from Rochadh, the son of Colla-da-Chrioch.
Note: There is also a Clan Bresail, alias Muinter Domnalláin, cited between Ballinasloe and Loughrea in Ui Maine (Connacht).
An early genealogy of the Úa Bresail Airthir: (Rawlinson)
Lorcan m. Gilli Padraic m. Madain m. Áeda m. Trénfhir m. Célechain m. Garbíth m. Áeda m. Máel Dúin m. Donngaile m. Buachalla m. Conchobuir Corraig m. Máel Dúin m. Fíngin m. Rónáin m. Tuathail m. Ailella m. Conaill m. Féicc m. Bressail m. Feidelmid m. Fiachrach Cassáin m. Collai Fochríth.
An early genealogy of the Úa Bressail Macha: (Laud 610)
Domnall m. Flathbertaigh m. Aeda m. Colgan m. Domnaill m. Cuind m. Erodain m. Gairbid m. Lathechan m. Aeda Laigen m. Cummascaig m. Conchobuir Chorraig m. Mailduin m. Finghin m. Ronain m. Thuathail m. Ailella m. Conaill m. Feicc m. Bressail m. Feidlimthe m. Fiachach m. Colla Fochrich.
The Annals note:
- For 525/26/35, Ailill, Bishop of Armagh, who was of the Ui Breasail, died.
- For 771, Fearghal, son of Eladhach, lord of Ui Breasail Beiri, was slain.
- CS896, Flaithbertach son of Murchad, king of Ailech, was slain by the Uí Bresail.
- For 914, Erudán son of Gairbíth, toisech H. m-Bresail Macha.
- For 984, Flaithbertach ua hÁnluain, king of Uí Nialláin, was deceitfully killed by the Uí Bresail.
- For 1018, Aed ua Erudáin, king of Uí Bresail Macha, died.
- For 1037, Archú ua Celecháin, tigherna Ua m-Bresail, was slain.
- For 1038, Colman Cam ua Conghaile ri H.m-Bresail, slain by Matadan ua Ceilecan.
- For 1044, Niall ua Céilecáin, king of Uí Bresail, was blinded.
- For 1047, Muirchertach, son (grandson?) of Madadhan, king of Uí-Bresail, was killed in Ard-Macha, by Madadhan Ua Celechain.
- For 1054, The son of Árchú ua Céilecáin, king of Uí-Bresail, was slain by the men of Fernmhagh.
- U1082, Finnchad son of Amalgaidh, chief of Clann Bresail, was killed.
- U1105, Muiredach mac Cana, died in penitence.
- For 1107, A victory by the Uí-Bresail over the Uí-Meth, in which they were slaughtered, together with their king, i.e. Aedh Ua hInnreachtaigh.
- For 1109, A slaughter was inflicted on the Uí Bresail, including their king, i.e. Dartin.
- M1155, Amhlaeibh Mac Cana, lord of Cinel-Aenghusa, pillar of the chivalry and vigour of all Cinel-Eoghain, died, and was interred at Ard-Macha.
- M1167, Muireadhach, the son of Mac Cana, was slain by the sons of Ua Lochlainn.
- LC1170, Conchobhar, son of Muirchertach Mac Lachlainn, king of Cenel-Eoghain, and royal heir of all Erinn, was slain by Aedh Bec Mac Cana, and by the Uí-Carragain, on Easter Saturday, in the middle of Trian-mór, at Ard-Macha.
- LC1189, Echmilidh, son of Mac Cana, the happiness and prosperity of all Tir-Eoghain, died.
- M1212, Donough Mac Cann, Chief of Kinel-Aengusa, died.
- U1213, Donnchadh Mac Cana, chief of Cenel-Oenghusa, died.
- U1216, Mag Cana, chief of Cenel-Oengusa, was killed by his own kinsmen.
- U1266, Lachlainn Ma[c] Cana was slain outside the door of the court of the Lord Archbishop by Eachmarcach Ua Anluain, in revenge of [the slaying of] Murchadh Ua Anluain.
Uí Méith - northern Co. Louth, eastern Armagh and later in Monaghan. Imchad, the son of Colla Fochríth (one of the 3 Collas) is cited as progenitor of the Uí Méith in the early genealogies. Hanratty (O hInnrechtaigh) were styled as lords of Ui Meith with territory in northern Co. Louth before being pushed into Monaghan by pressure from the Anglo-Normans. The Ua hAnluain (O'Hanlon) sept were cited as chiefs of Ui Meith Tiri, "now the barony of Orior" in Armagh, and O'Dugan (Poems) places them over Oirtheara (Orior).
John O'Donovan in his notes on the Annals of the Four Masters cites, "Ui Meith - There were two groups of this name in the ancient Oirghialla, one called Ui-Meith Macha. alias Ui-Meith Tire, who were seated in the present barony of Monaghan, in the County of Monaghan; and the other Ui-Meath-Mara [Omeath], seated in Cualigne, in the north of the County of Louth." O'Dugan mentions O hInnreachtaigh as a king of Ui-Meith Macha, and the Annals mention them frequently. O hAinbhith, who are also mentioned in the annals as lords of Ui Meith, are given by O'Dugan as lords over noble Ui-Seaain.
The text H. 3, 17, T.C.D. notes the Sogain (of Ulst.?), Ui Echach Coba, Ui Meith Macha and Conaille Murthemne are of the same stock, indicating a possible difference in the genealogy of the Ui Meith Macha and the Ui-Meath-Mara.
An early genealogy of the Uí Méith: (Book of Ballymote)
Imar m. Muircertaich m. Duibdarac m. Scannlain m. Indrachtaich m. Gairbid m. Ainbeith m. Mailbrigti m. Duibinnracht m. Taidg m. Innreachtaich m. Muiredaich m. Mailimuchair m. Scannlain m. Fingin m. Aedha m. Fiachrach m. Fiachrach m. Eogain m. Briuin m. Muiredaic Meith (a quo H. Meith) m. Imcadha m. Colla Da Crich m. Eachach Doimlen.
The Annals cite:
- For 609 cite Conaill Gáideirg maic Daimine occisi a Nepotibus Meith.
- For 672, Scannlan, son of Fingin, chief of Ui Meith, died.
- For 709, Tnuthach, son of Mochloingi, (Tnuthach mac Mochloingsig) as chief of Ui Meith.
- For 737 - Artrach, son of Aitheachda, as Lord of Ui Meith;
- For 742/47 - Muiredhaigh Find (Minn or Mend), ríg h-Ua Meith, h-i Cul Cumaisc, la h-Ulltu.;
- For 750 - Flaithniadh, son of Tnuthach, as lord of Ui Meith;
- For 755 - Flaithniadh mac Tnuthaigh, ri h-Úa Meith;
- For 824/26 - Maelduin, son of Gormghal, (Maol Dúin, mac Gormghaili) as lord of Ui Meith;
- For 827/29 - Drugan, son of Tadhg, (Drucan mac Taidhg) as lord of Ui Meith;
- For 893 - Dobhailen, son of Ailell, lord of Ui Meith Macha;
- For 1003 - Dondchad Find and the men of Úa Meith.
- For 1003 - Sinach H. Uargussa (Shionach ua Uarghusa), rí H. Meith;
- For 1016/7 - Fland ua Beice (Flann H. Beicce), tigherna Ua Meith;
- For 1019, Aedh ua h-Indreachtaigh, tigherna Ua Méith, was slain by Uibh Nialláin.
- For 1027 - Cú Locha ua Gairbhith (Gairbeidh), tigherna Ua Meith;
- For 1043 - Flann Ua h-Ainfeth (Anbeid), tighearna Ua Meith;
- For 1049 - Iomhar Ua Beice, tigherna Ua Méith, was slain.
- For 1076 - Gairbheith Ua h-Innrechtaigh, tigherna Ua Méith, was slain by the men of Midhe.
- AI1096, A muster of the Uí Méith into Uí Echach Ulad on a foray, and they carried off cows. The Uí Echach came upon them, making a slaughter of them, and the son of Ua hAinbith and many others were killed.
- For 1107 - Domhnall Ua h-Ainfith (Anbeith) as tigherna Ua Meith;
- For 1131 - Donn Slébhe Ua h-Innreachtaigh as lord of Ua Meith;
- For 1161 - Iomhar Ua Innreachtaigh as lord of Ua Meith;
- For 1170/78 - Diarmait h-Ua Ainbfheith, rí h-Ua Meith.
Ui Tuirtre - The territory of the Ui Tuitre was also said to have included an area west of Lough Neagh (in modern co. Tyrone), as well as northwest of the great Lough in the modern barony of Loughinsholin, co, Derry. Loughinsholin itself is said to derive from the "lough of the island of the O'Lynns", i.e. the O'Flynn, chiefs of Ui Tuirtre. Groups of the Ui Tuitre were apparently driven east across the river Bann by the rise of the O'Cahans about the 12th century, and are later recorded in the central baronies of Co. Antrim, i.e. Toome and Antrim.
The Ui Tuirtre genealogy goes back to Fiachu Tuirtri, son of Colla Óiss (Uais). One lineage is cited as: Bressal, mac Fergusa Forcraid, mac Máel Fothardaich, mac Suibne, mac Furudráin, et supra. O'Donnelan, Mulrooney, and O'Flynn are noted chiefs in the 11th century. After this time the O'Flynns (O'Lynns) were dominant chiefs of Ui Tuirtre, they being claimed as a senior branch of Clanna Rury of Ulidia. The neighboring territory of Fear Li (Fir Li) was (also?) in the barony of Coleraine (northeast co. Derry), and the O'Flynns (O'Lynns) are cited holding the kingship of both Tuirtre and Fir Li, at various times. O'Dugan (Poems) in the Orghialla section of his poem cite O'Floinn and O'Domhnallain as lords of Ui-Tuirtre.
Francis Byrne in his Irish Kings and High Kings states the Uí Maic Caírthinn south of Lough foyle, the Uí Fiachrach Arda Sratha and Uí Thuirtri west and east of the Sperrins were collectively known as the Uí Macc Uais.
An early Ua Tuirtri genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Flann m. Muiredaig m. Muircherdaich m. Flaind m. Muirecáin m. Máel Chráebe (rí Airgialla) m. Duib Sínaich m. Áeda m. Loingsich m. Indrechtaich m. Rechtabrat m. Máel Chráebe m. Máel Fathardaig m. Suibni m. Furudráin m. Béicce m. Cuanach m. Dáre m. Feidelmid m. Feichíne m. Fiachrach Tuirtle m. Colla Uais.
An early Ui Loind Line .i. Tuitre genealogy: (Book of Balllymote)
Ruaidra m. Domnaill m. Conuladh m. Muircertaigh m. Alaxandair m. Conmuighe m. Conulad in tsighaide m. Conmuighe m. Ruaidri .i. in Deoradh m. Fhoghlogha m. Mc. Iaruind m. Aedha m. Donnugan m. Foghartaich m. Floind (otait Ui Loind) m. Muiredaig m. Indrachtaigh m. Reachtabrat m. Mailcraibhi m. Mailfotartaigh m. Suibni m. Furodran m. Bece m. Cuanach m. Dairi m. Feidhlimthe m. Fechin m. Fiacrach Tuirtri m. Eachach m. Colla Uais.
The Annals cite:
- For 668, Maelfothartaigh, son of Suibhne, chief of Cinel Tuirtre, died.
- For 728/34, Reachtabhra, grandson of Cathasaigh, Lord of Ui Thuirtre, died.
- For 738, Muireadhach, son of Fearghus Forcraidh, Lord of Ui Tuirtre, was slain.
- For 745, Cú Chongalt son of the grandson of Cathusach, and Ailill h-ua Cathasaigh, of the Ui Tuirtri.
- For 834/35, Echaid son of Cú Chongalt, king of Uí Thuirtri, died.
- U919, Mael Craibe, son of Dub Sínaig, king of Airgialla, fell.
- For 1014/5, Conchobhar ua Domhnalláin, tigherna Ua Tuirtri.
- For 1059, Muiredach ua Flainn, king of Uí Tuirtre, died.
- For 1081, Maol Mithidh Ua Maol Ruanaidh, tigherna Ua t-Tuirtre, was slain.
- For 1158, Cú Uladh, mac Deóraidh Uí Fhlainn, tigherna Ua t-Tuirtre & Dáil Araidhe.
- For 1160, Ruaidhri Ua Tomaltaigh, chief of Muintir-Duibhetain, soul of the hospitality and prowess of Ui-Tuirtre, fell by the men of Breifne.
- For 1176, Cú Muighe mac Ín Deoradh h-Uí Flainn, rí Tuirtri & Fer Lí (Feara-Lí), was slain by his own brother Cú Midhe.
- MCB1176, Cú Muighe Ó Floinn, king of Uí Thuirtre, Fir Lí, Dál Riada, and Dál nAraidhe, was treacherously killed by his brother Cú Midhe Ó Floinn and by the Fir Lí.
- For 1193, Cú Midhe Ó Floinn, king of Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí, was treacherously killed by the followers of John de Courcy.
- For 1201, Niall O'Flynn (O'Lynn) was treacherously slain by the English of Ulidia.
- For 1218, Muirchertach O'Floinn, king of Uí-Tuirtre, was slain y the Foreigners.
- For 1287, Brian O'Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri, was slain.
- For 1345, Manus O'Flynn (Line) i.e. of Moylinny, was slain by Donnell Donn and Brian O'Neill.
- For 1356/9, Muircertach, son of Thomas Ua Floinn, who was to be king of Ui-Tuirtri, was slain in treachery, by Hugh, the son of Brian, son of Hugh Boy O'Neill.
- For 1365/8, Thomas Ua Floinn, king of Ui-Tuirtri, died this year.
Fir Lí - Feara Li, or Fer Li, i.e. the men of Mag Lí, was located west of the River Bann in the barony of Coleraine, Co. Derry. The Book of Lecan notes that Fir Li (and Ui mac Uais) in Ulster extended from Bir (Moyola river) to Camus (south of Coleraine). The Moyola river was anciently the boundary between the Feara Li and the Húi Tuirtre. The Fir Lí are noted as an Aighiallan people who came under the dominion of the Cenél Eóghain by the 9th century. Their neighbors appear to have been the Ui Tuirtre and factions of both groups are said to have been driven to the east of the Bann (into Ulidia) by the advance of Ua Cathain of the Cenel Eoghain. Another Airghiallan group, the Fir na Chraíbe, were also noted at an early date in the region west of the Bann.
The sept of Ó Floinn (e.g. O'Lynn) became kings of Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí by the late 12th century, and the territory name, Loch Inse Ui Fhloinn, is remembered in the name of the barony of Loughinsholin, in southwest county Derry. This was within the traditional territory of the Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí, west of the Bann.
The annals cite:
- U949, Ua Canannáin made a foray and plundered Fir Lí and killed Flaithbertach ua Néill.
- U1004, Domnall son of Flannacán, king of Fir Lí, died.
- U1036, Domhnall ua h-Uathmharáin, tigherna Fer Lí, was slain by the Dál n-Araidhe.
- For 1063, Cú Dúiligh Ua Taidhg, tigherna Fer Lí, was killed.
- U1081, Mac Craith ua Ócán, chief of Cenél Fergusa, Mael Mithig ua Mael Ruanaid, king of Uí Tuirtri - by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn, and ua Uathmurán, king of Fir Lí, were killed.
- LC1135, Echri Ua Taidhg, king of Feara-Lí, with his brother, and with his wife, was smothered in a cave by the Uí-Tuirtre.
- For 1138, Raghnall, mac Iomhair Ua Cathain, tigherna na Craoibhe, Ciannachta, & Fer Lí.
- M1176, Benmee, the daughter of Donough O'Carroll, and wife of Cooey O'Flynn, lady of Hy-Tuirtre and Firlee, died.
- LC1176, Cumhuighe O'Floinn, king of Uí-Tuirtre, and Feara-Lí and Dal-Araidhe, was killed by Cumhidhe, i.e. his own brother, and by the Feara-Lí.
- LC1177, John (de Curci and the knights) went also, on the same expedition, into Uí-Tuirtre and Feara-Lí; but Cumhuighe O'Floinn burned Airther-maighe before him; and he burned Cul-rathain, and many other churches.
- LC1178, The same John went also on a preying expedition into Dal-Araidhe, and into Uí-Tuirtre. But Cumhuighe O'Floinn, king of Uí-Tuirtre and Feara-Lí, attacked them.
- MCB1179, An overthrow of battle and dreadful slaughter on John de Courcy at Sgrig Arcaidh by Cú Midhe Ó Floinn, with a force of the Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí.
- LC1181, A hosting by Domhnall, son of Aedh Mac Lachlainn, and by the Cenel-Eoghan of Telach-óg, into Ulidia; and they gained a battle over the Ulidians, and over the Uí-Tuirtre, and the Feara-Lí together with Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe and Cumhuighe O'Floinn.
- MCB1193, Cú Midhe Ó Floinn, king of Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí, was treacherously killed by the followers of John de Courcy, in Aointreabh.
Derlas (Derlus, Durlais) - The location for a territory named Derlus is described by John O'Donavan in Ui Tuitre, co. Antrim. Note: There was also a Derlas located to the south of Downpatrick, now Bright (Mrechtan), in co. Down, in Uí nEchach country; and yet another cited in Tethba.
As the Ua Floinn (or O'Lynn) are described as chiefs of Durlas in the 12th & 13th centuries, and McLysaght places them in southern Armagh (between Lough Neagh and the sea), perhaps the country of Derlas was on the Armagh-Down border. McLysaght cites the Ua Floinn lineage from Clanna Rury of Ulidia, tracing their descent Colla Uais.
Since the reference in the Annals for 'Inis Darcarcrenn' seems to be Ram's Island, near the eastern shore of Loch Neagh, the location of Derlas was likely in county Antrim. The Ui Tuitre of co. Derry are known to have moved west across the river Bann, into county Antrim, supplanting the lands of the Eilne branch of the Dal nAraide by the 10th century. Ua Floinn (O'Flynn, O'Lynn) were Ui Tuirtre leaders as were the later kings of Derlas.
The annals cite for the general term Derlas:
- CS662, Mael Dúin son of Furudrán, king of Derlas (Durlais), died.
- CS933, Mael Garb son of Gairbíth, king of Derlas, fell, in Mag Uatha.
- U964, Furudrán son of Béc, king of Derlas, was treacherously and wickedly killed by the Cenél Eógain.
- U984, Dub Darach son of Domnallán, king of Derlas, was killed by his own people.
- CS1000, Cú Caille ua Domnaill, king of Derlas (Durlais), was treacherously killed by ua Néill i.e. by Aed.
- U1000, Domnall ua Domnalláin, king of Derlas, was killed by Aed ua Néill.
- U1121, Cú Maigi son of Deorad ua Flaind, king of Derlas, was drowned in Loch nEchach after the Uí nEchach took Inis Darcarcrenn against him, in which forty-five fell.
- M1121, Cumaighe, son of Deoraidh Ua Floinn, lord of Durlas, was drowned in Loch-Eathach, after the island of Inis-Draicrenn had been taken upon him by the Ui-Eathach, where forty-four persons were slain.
- M1215, Rory O'Flynn (O'Lynn), Lord of Derlas (Durlus), died.
Uí Meic Uais - the Uí Meic Uais descend from one of the three Collas, i.e. Colla Óiss (Uais), an early pedigree citing Furudran (died c. 642) son of Béc m. Cuanach m. Dairi m. Feidlimidh m. Feichin m. Fiachrach Tuirtich m. Eirc m. Colla Uais m. Echach Doimlen.
Francis Byrne in his Irish Kings and High Kings states that the Uí Maic Caírthinn south of Lough Foyle, the Uí Fiachrach Arda Sratha and Uí Thuirtri west and east of the Sperrins, were collectively known as the Uí Macc Uais. However, groups of this name are also noted in the midland region.
The Annals cite territories of Uí Meic Uais in the regions of Midhe and Brega, that is, within modern counties Westmeath and Meath. 12th centrury septs included Ua Comhraidhe (O'Curry) of Uí Mac Uais Mide (Moygoish barony, co. Westmeath), as well as Ua hAonghusa (O'Hennessy) of Uí Mac Uais Breg (Upper Kells/Lower Navan baronies, co. Meath).
A genealogy of the Uí Meic Uais: (Book of Ballymote)
Gilla Padraic m. Duibrois m. Donnchada m. Mudroin m. Brain m. Muiredaig m. Aedha m. Flaithbertaich m. Fhirdacrich m. Mailbrigti m. Robartaich m. Coibdeanaich m. Caemain m. Branduib m. Aeda m. Crichain.
The Annals cite for Uí Mic Uais:
- For 323, The first year of Colla Uais, son of Eochaidh Doimhlen, as king over Ireland.
- For 598, Béc son of Cuanu, king of the Uí Meic Uais.
- For 642/45, Death of Furudrán son of Béicce son of Cuanu, king of Uí Moccu Uais.
- For 717/19, Crichan mac Taidhg, chief of Ui Mac Uais, was slain.
- For 807, A slaughter was made of the Uí Mic Uais by the Corca Roidhe of Meath.
- For 837, Conghalach, son of Maenach, lord of Uí Mic Uais Breagh died.
- For 838, Cinneididh, son of Conghalach, lord of Uí Mic Uais, was killed by his brother.
- For 851, Maol Caurarda, mac Maoil Breasail, tigherna Ua Mic Uais Airghiall, died.
- For 870, Maelruanaidh, son of Maelcuarda, lord of Ui Mic Uais of the North, died.
- For 906, Fogartach, son of Cele, lord of Ui-mic-Uais, died.
- For 935, Lorcán, mac Conghalaigh, tighearna Ua Mic Uais Bregh, died.
- For 948, Ainmire grandson of Catlán of the Uí Meic Uais of Mide, superior of Ciuain moccu Nóis (Clonmacnoise), rested.
- For 1016, Muiredhach ua Duibheoin, tigherna Ua Mic Uais Bhregh, was slain.
- For 1020, Gillaciarain, son of Oisen, king of Mughdhorna during the space of one day, was slain by the Uí-mic-Uais-Bregh.
- For 1057, Ceallach, mac Muirecáin, tigherna Ua Mic Uais Bregh, died.
- For 1106, Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn was killed by the Ui-Minnegain, i.e. some of the Ui-Mic-Uais of Meath.
- For 1152, Cu Midhi h-Úa Cormaidhi, taisech h-Úa Maic Uais Midhi.
Cenel mBecce, claim descent from Bec son of Cuanach (Book of Ballymote), a king of Airgialla (possibly the late 6th century king of Uí Mic Uais). Early reference cites mac Cuanach of Cell Maeláin, in Magh na Selga in Ulster.
As such their early genealogy appears to be: Bec (ri Airgiall) m. Cuanach mc. Dairi mc. Feidhlimidh mc. fEchin mc. Fiacrach Tuirtri mc. Echach mc. Colla Uais.
The same descent is claimed for Uí mac Carthainn.
An early Cenel mBece genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Suibni (a quo Cenel mBece) mc. Mailodrain mc. Suibne mc. Bec mc. Cuanach mc. Dairi mc. Feidhlimidh mc. Echin mc. Fiacrach Tort mc. Echach mc. Colla Uais.
Fer Manach, aka Fir Managh, of co. Fermanagh are treated on another page.
Uí Fiachrach Arda Srátha - Medieval chiefs of Uí Fiachrach Arda Strátha were cited as Ó Críochain (O'Crehan or Creighton?) of Ardstraw, Co. Tyrone, as well as Ó Aedha (O'Hayes or Hughes?) who were also chiefs of Fir Luirg. Arda Srátha was part of a wide area in modern county Tyrone that was tributary to the Cineal Eoghan (the northern Ui Neill).
The Uí Fiachrach of Arda Sratha are unrelated to the other Uí Fiachrach groups, which are located in Connacht. Instead, their descent is given from Fiachra mac Eirc mic Colla Uais.
John O'Dubhagain in his Topographical Poems cites the sept of "O hEirc, over Ui-Fiachrach Finn," a reference to the territories of Airghialla. The sept of O hEirc, chiefs of Hy-Fiachra Finn, are noted by O'Hart in the barony of Massarene, modern co. Antrim. They also claim descent from the three Collas.
Francis Byrne in his Irish Kings and High Kings states the Uí Maic Caírthinn south of Lough Foyle, the Uí Fiachrach Arda Sratha and Uí Thuirtri west and east of the Sperrins were collectively known as the Uí Macc Uais.
An early genealogy of the Uí Fiachrach Arda Sratha is: (Book of Ballymote)
Niall m. Focartaich m. Maelruanaid m. Mailpadraic m. Aedha m. Muirmuire m. Mailruanaid m. Mailcairarda m. Mailbresail m. Aedha m. Crichain m. Cathasaich m. Mailcothaig m. Guairi m. Forannan m. Ainmerech m. Cormaic m. Dochairtaig m. Fiachach m. Eirc m. Eachach m. Colla Oss.
The annals cite:
- For 787, Mael Bresail, mac Aedha, mic Crichain, tigherna Ua Fiachrach.
- For 1033, Fogartach h-úa h-Aedha, rí Fer Luirg & h-Úa Fiachrach Arda Sratha, was slain by the Fir Manach.
- For 1044, Ua h-Aedha, lord of Ui-Fiachrach-Arda-Sratha, was slain.
- For 1069, Ua hAedha, king of Uí-Fiachrach of Ard-Sratha, died.
- For 1076, Domhnall Ua Críochán, toiseach Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha, was slain by the Ui Tuirtri, & the Cenel m-Binnigh Glinne.
- For 1102, Flaithbhertach, mac Fothaidh, tigherna Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha
- For 1129, Niall Ua Críochain, tigherna Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha, was slain by the Ui Cenneidigh.
- For 1150, Ua Ceallaigh, tigherna Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha, was slain.
- For 1160, Domhnall Ua Criocháin, & the Uibh Fiachrach Arda Sratha.
- for 1164, h-Ua Críocháin, tigherna Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha.
Síl Daim Argait - The early genealogy is cited in Laud 610 as Daim Argait (Corpri) son of Echach son of Cremthaind Leith son of Feicc son of Dega Duirn son of Rochatha son of Colla Fochríth. Among the prominent groups included in Síl Daim Argait included Sil nDaimine and Clann Lugainn of the modern county Fermanagh area.
Throughout the 11th and 12th centuries the Kings of Fermanagh - O'hEignigh, O'Maolruanaidh and O'Dubhdara - were drawn from the Airghialla, its Clann Lugainn branch, which is stated in the early genealogies to go back to one of the three Collas, i.e. Colla Fochríth. O'Dugan (Poems) mentions Ui hEignigh and Muintir Maoilruana as "two kings over the good slopes of Monach". He also cites a sept of OhEignigh over Clann-Cearnaigh, and apparently in connection with Ui Lorcain of eastern Ui-Breasail. O'Heany or Hegney (Ó hEignigh) and Mulrooney (Maolruanaidh) were noted as kings of Fermanagh (Fer Manach, or Fir Managh) until becoming tributary to the Maguires (Meicc h-Uidir of clann Lugain) by the 13th century.
For a citation from the Annals, see Fir Managh.
Dartraige - remembered in the barony of Dartree in west co. Monaghan, it was also referred to as Dartaige Coininnsi. The O'Boylan (Ó Baoighealláin) sept are cited as early kings of Darty (Dairtre) in Orghialla. O'Dugan mentions the Muinter Baoigheallain in his Topographical Poem. From the same stock as the O'Flanagans of Fermanagh, the territory of Ó Baoigheallain (O Boylan) during early medieval times, as lords of Airgialla, stretched from Fermanagh to Louth before being reduced by the MacMahons.
There was also a Dartraige centered in Breifne.
The Annals cite for Dartraige:
- For 869, Martan, of the Dartraige of Daiminis, abbot of Cluain moccu Nóis and Daiminis, rested.
- For 947, Scolaige ua hAedacáin, king of Dartraige, and Gairbíth son of Muiredach, heir designate of Uí Chremthainn, and Aed son of Tigernán ua Ruairc were killed in battle in a counterattack.
- For 998, Domnall son of Donn Cuan, king of Dartraige, was killed by the Gailenga.
- For 1006, Trénfher ua Baigheallán, tigherna Dartraighe, was slain by the Cenel Conaill [at or near] Loch Erne.
- For 1093, Aodh Ua Baigheallán, tigherna Airghiall, was slain by the Conaillibh Muirthemhne.
- For 1179, Defeat and slaughter [were inflicted] on the English, of Ceanannas by Maol Ruanaidh Ó Baoigheallán (king of Dartraighe), with a force of the Dartraighe.
- For 1457, Mag Uidhir and Philip Mag Uidhir went with a large force into Dartraighe of Con-inis and, as they did not come up with spoil, burned all Dartraighe and the town of Eogan, son of Rughraidhe Mag Mathgamna, namely, Lis-na-ngabur, and went to their houses on that expedition with victory of overthrow and so on.
- For 1486, Brian, son of Rughraidhe, son of Ardghal Mag Mathgamna (namely, lord of Dartraighe), was slain by Foreigners of the Plain of Oirghialla.
- For 1505, A hosting by Ua Neill, namely, by Domnall, into Dartraighe of Oirgialla and the country was wasted and pillaged by him and Aedh, son of John the Tawny, son of Eogan Mag Mathgamna, was slain there.
Uí Briúin Archaille - Their early genealogy is cited from Brian son of Daig Duirn son of Rochaid son of Colla Fochríth. e.g. Book of Ballymote. Their territory is described in Onomasticon Goedelicum in the barony of Dungannon, co. Tyrone, which is located on the western side of Lough Neagh.
The Annals cite:
- For 1107, Cathasach Ua Tuamain, lord of Ui-Briuin-Archaille, was wounded by the Ui-Cremhthainn, and he died in consequence
Uí Labrada - The early genealogy is cited from Labraid son of Daig Duirn son of Rochaid son of Colla Fochríth. Where the Uí Labrada hailed from, or what surnames evolved from this group, this editor is unsure.
The Annals cite:
For 1039, Muiredhach mac Flaithbertaig h-Uí Neill was slain by the Ui Labrada. For 1108, Inis Uí Labrada was stormed by the Fir Manach.
Uí Dorrthainn - Onomasticon Goedelicum cites the Ui (Dorthinn, Dorthaind, Dorethainn, Tortain) in Brechmag, centered perhaps near Ardbraccan, 2 miles west of Navan, co. Meath. The early genealogies cite Dorthon, son of Fiacc, son of Feideilmid, son of Fiachra Cassán, son of Colla Fochríth, as progenitor of the tribal group referred to as Uí Dorthain.
The Annals cite:
- For 1009, Maelán, i.e. of the large spear, king of Uí Dorthainn, was killed by the Cenél Eógain in the middle of the Trian Mór in Ard Macha as a result of a commotion of the two armies.
- For 1021, Aed ua Néill's son brought a raiding party over the Uí Dorthain who were in Mag Itechta, ...
- For 1024, Maelduin Ua Conchaille, king of Uí-Niallain, was killed by the Ui-Dorthainn.
- For 1024, A predatory expedition by the son of Ua Neill, so that he ravaged Uí-Meth and Uí-Dorthainn.
- For 1032, The victory of Inbher-Boinne was gained by Sitric, son of Amhlaibh, over the Conaille, and the Uí-Dorthainn, and the Uí-Meith, in which they were put to slaughter.
Uí Echach - The Uí Echach of Oirgialla, in Tuath Echach, comprised the barony of Armagh, in modern county Armagh, as suggested by Leabhar na gCeart and by O'Donovan's edition of Topographical Poems of O'Dugan and O'Heerin). The Ui Echach bega and the Ui Echach móra, of Síl Colla Focrích (the race of Colla-dá-chrich), from MacFirbis and the Book of Ballymote, may relate to this reference and region. The text H. 3, 17, T.C.D. however place these in Dalaraide, perhaps a reference to Ui Ethach Cobha.
The Airthir (of Airghialla) had by the 8th century split into three main septs, the Uí Nialláin, the Uí Breasail, and and the Uí Echdach. The Síl Ciarain Ua nEchach were located in Airtheraib in Ulster, according to the Book of Lecan and Book of Ballymote. An Oriel sept of Ua Ruadhacain (O'Rogan) is cited in (or near) Armagh prior to the 13th century. O'Dugan (Poems) cites Clann-Ruadhagain and the O'Domhnaills, as the two noble tribes of Ui-Eathach in Oirghialla.
Coba vs. Arghialla: Were there two adjacent Ui Echach territories with two separate genealogies? The Ui Ethach Coba (Ui Ethach Uladh in the baronies of Iveagh, in co. Down) were a powerful group (of Dál n-Araidhe descent) in adjoining county Down, however the Book of Fenagh and Leabhar na gCeart make note of an Ui Echach (baronies of Iveagh, co. Down) as a sub-territory of Airghialla. In Place-Names of Northern Ireland, for County Down, it cites The Ui Echach were also known as the Ui Echach Coba to distinguish them from similarly named groups, to the east in the Ards peninsula (Ui Eachach Arda), and to the west in Airgialla. The diocese of Dromore reflects the earlier boundary between Ui Echach Coba and Airgialla, in that it includes the Armagh parishes of Seagoe and Shankill and follows the river Bann all the way to Lough Neagh . . . The north-western boundary of the diocese follows the River Bann from Knock Bridge (on the modern boundary with Co. Armagh) all the way to Lough Neagh, and includes the district of Clanbrasil, now the barony of Oneilland East. Clanbrasil was traditionally part of Ui Echach but was annexed to the new County of Armagh in 1605.
Other northern septs: The Uí Echach na hÁrda, of the ards of county Down, are given in descent from Eochaid Gunnat in the Book of Leinster. The Cinel-Eachach are noted by Seamus O Ceallaigh in the Airghiallian kingdom of Ui Fhiachrach of Ard Sratha (Ardstraw, Co. Tyrone). The Cenél Echach ín chodaig are noted (in H. 2, 7, T.C.D.) as a branch of the Bredcha (Brédach) in descent from Eochaid mac Eogain.
An early Uí Echach (Sil Colla Fochri) genealogy: (Book of Ballymote)
Murcad m. Ruaidri m. Muiredaich m. Ailella m. Cumascaigh m. Echadon m. Ruadacan m. Cellaich m. Ruadrach m. Conmaeil m. Airmedaich m. Feradaich m. Amalga m. Aililla m. Echach m. Feidlimthe m. Fiachrach m. Colla Da Crich.
The Annals cite for the general term Echach:
- CS981, Domnall ua Aiteid, king of Uí Echach, and Loingsech, chief of Uí Nialláin, fell by one another. [Coba?]
- U986, A great disturbance in Ard Macha on the Sunday 25 July before Lammas between the Uí Echach and the Uí Nialláin, and in it the son of Trénar son of Celecán and others fell.
- LC1017, Cormac Ua Lorcain, king of Uí-Echach, was slain by the Uí-Trena.
- LC1019, Ruaidhri Ua hAillelain, king of Uí-Echach, was slain by the men of Fernmhagh. [Coba?]
- LC1037, Archú Ua Celechain, king of Uí-mBresail, and Ruaidhri Ua Lorcain, king of Uí-Niallain, occisi sunt at Craebh-chaille by Muiredhach O'Ruadhachain, and by the Uí-Echach.
- LC1038, Orcallaid O'Ruadhachain, king of Uí-Echach, was slain by Clann-Sionaigh in Ard-Macha, on the festival of Ultan, in revenge for the killing of Eochaidh Mac-an-Abaidh, and for the profanation of Ard-Macha.
- U1038, Orc Allaid ua Ruadacáin, king of Uí Echach, was killed by the Clann Sínaig in Ard Macha on Monday the feast of Ultán 4 Sept., in revenge for the killing of Eochaid son of the Abbot and for the profanation of Ard Macha.
- LC1054, The victory of Finnmhagh was gained over the Uí-Meith and the men of Uachtar-thire, by the Uí-Echach, in which fell the Croibhdherg, royal heir of Uachtar-thire.
- LC1086. A victory by the Airthera over the Uí-Echach, in which Domhnall Ua hAitheidh was slain.
- LC1094, Flaithbhertach Ua hAitheidh, king of Uí-Echach, was blinded by Donnchadh Ua hEochadha, king of Uladh.
- LC1102, Sord-Choluim-Chille was burned. Donnchadh, son of Echri Ua hAitheidh, royal heir of Uí-Echach, was slain by the Ulidians, in the fifth month after he had profaned the community of Patrick.
- LC1120, The victory of the plain of Cill-mór in Uí-Niallain was gained by Raghnall, son of Mac Riabhaigh, over the Uí-Echach, who were put to slaughter.
Uí Cormaic - The early genealogies cite Brion, son of Echach, son of Colla Uais, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of the Uí Cormaic. We find the name O'Corbmaic cited by O'Dugan (Poems), over the valiant Ui MacCarthainn.
Note: not to be confused with Ui Cormaic in co. Clare; or the Síl Cormaic of Leinster; or Ui Cormaic Maenmhaighe in Ui Maine; or Ui Cormaic in Tír dá glas, co. Tipperary.
The Book of Leinster mentions a Cenel Chormaic, in Meath, of the Clann Lugain branch, so called from Cormac mac Cairpri Damargait. O'Flaherty's Ogygia cites an Uí Cormaic in Ui mac Carthainn.
The Annals cite for the general term Cormaic:
- For 809, Niall, son of Aedh, lord of Ui Cormaic (Ulster?), died.
- For 848, Cetadach, Abbot of Cluain Mic Nois, died. He was of the tribe of Ui Cormaic Maenmhaighe.
- For 874, Socartach, lord of Ui Cormaic (Ulster?), died.
- For 923, Duibhghilla, son of Robachan, lord of Ui-Cormaic, was treacherously slain by Conghalach, son of Lorcan.
- For 933, Bard Bone, chief poet of Ireland, was killed by the Uí Cormaic of the Uí Echach (Ui-Cormaic-Cobha).
- For 1103, Murchad Donn i.e. ua Ruadacán was killed, allegedly, on a raid in Mag Coba, and that raiding party killed the Gilla Got ua Cormaic.
Uí mac Carthainn - near Lough Foyle, Tirkeeran, co. Derry, according to Onomasticon Goedelicum. O'Flaherty's Ogygia cites an Uí Cormaic in Uí mac Carthainn. O'Dugans topographical poem cites O'Corbmaic, over the valiant Ui MacCarthainn, and goes on to note the chieftains of Ui Meic Carthainn as O'Colgan and O'Connell (perhaps two separate regions in Oirghialla).
Francis Byrne in his Irish Kings and High Kings states the Uí Maic Caírthinn south of Lough Foyle, the Uí Fiachrach Arda Sratha and Uí Thuirtri west and east of the Sperrins were collectively known as the Uí Macc Uais.
A Tír Mac Cartainn is cited by Goedelicum east of the barony of Boylagh in county Donegal.
An early genealogy cites a lineage for an Uí mac Carthaind from Colla Uais, i.e. Cairthand (a quo H. Mc. Carthaind), son of Eichin, son of Bec (ri Airgiall) m. Cuanach m. mc. Dairi mc. Feidhlimidh mc. Echin mc. Fiacrach Tort mc. Echach mc. Colla Uais.
The Annals cite:
- LC1096, Conchobhar Ua hAiniaraidh, king of Cianachta, and Ua Cein, king of Uí-mic-Cairthinn, fell by each other in combat.
Uí Tréna - located in co. Armagh?, Craebh Carthaind is described in it. They are claimed to be descended from Trian son of Feidhlimidh, son of Fiachra Cassan, son of Colla Da Crich.
Not to be confused with Ui Trena, in the territory of Ui Ceinnsealaigh, in Leinster. Not to be confused with the Ui Trena of Munster.
The Annals cite for the general term Trena:
- LC1017, Cormac Ua Lorcain, king of Uí-Echach, was slain by the Uí-Trena.
- C1416, Mac Cinatha of Trough, Niall son of Brian, was killed by the sons of Cu Ulad O Neill at Craeb Carthaind in Ui Trena.
Uí Cennfhada - Tír Cendfhada, aka Ui Cennfota or Ui Ceinneidigh, gave its name to the barony of Tirkennedy, co. Fermanagh. The Uí Ceinneidigh are noted in the general area in the 12th century, and the sept of Ó Daimhín are later given as chiefs here, according to the Irish Annals. The Ui Cennfhota are claimed to descend from Fergus Cennfhota son of Cremthann, the eponymous ancestor of the Ui Chremthainn. In the same lineage, Ó Daimhín claims descendancy from "Daimhin" who died in 966, a son of Cairbre Dam Argait, King of Oriel. Their surname may have been anglicized as O Davin, rather than O Devine.
The Annals cite:
- LC1129, Niall Ua Crichain, king of Uí-Fiachrach of Ard-sratha, was slain by the Uí-Ceinneidigh.
- U1275, Flaithbertach Ua Daimin, king of Fir-Manach; rested in Christ.
- U1346, Donn Ua Daimin, chief of Tir-Cennfota, died.
- U1427, Brian Ua Daimin, chief of Tir-Cenufhada, died on the 8th of the Ides 6th of January.
Fir Lemna - or Uí Tuathail, the Fir Lemna were cited as one of the Trí Tuatha of Oirghialla (along with Síl Dubthir and Ui Cremthainne). Fir Lemna is thought to have been near Clogher (Clochar mac nDaimin) in modern county Tyrone. Another name for it was given as Síl Tuathail in Tuaiscirt. Mag Lemna is given in the parishes of Clogher and Errigal Keerogue in southern co. Tyrone and bordering co. Monaghan. Their ancestry is claimed from Tuathal, son of Daimíne (a quo Síl Daimini), son of Cairpre Damargait, son of Echach, son of Crimthann, son of Fiacc, son of Daig Duirn, son of Rochaid, son of Colla Fochríth. O'Dugan (Poems) notes the sept of O'Caomhain as a king of Magh Leamhna. King of Magh Leamhna
The Uí Neill sept of Mac Cathmaoil (the McCawells, alias Campbells) were chiefs of Clann Fogarty which included the barony of Clogher, co. Tyrone. Mac Cathmhaoil were cited as a chiefs of Cenél Feradaig (Kinelfarry), of Clann Oengusa, and of Clann Duibinrecht, and of Clann Fogartaig according to the Annals of Ulter.
The Annals cite:
- CS722, Fergal son of Echaid of Lemna, king of Tamnach, was killed at the battle of Almain.
- FA722, Fergal mac Echach Lemna, king of Tamnach Síl Daimini, was killed at the battle of Almu—high.
- U770, Artgal, abbot of Clochar Mac nDaiméni, dies.
- M929, Ceannfaeladh, son of Lorcan, comharba of Cluain-Eois and Clochar-mac-Daimheini, died.
- U931, Cenn Faelad son of Lorcán, superior of Cluain Eóis and Clochar of the sons of Daiméne, and tanist-abbot of Ard Macha, rested.
- U951, Gairbíth son of Lorcán, king of Fir Leamna, died.
- M1080, The battle of Ath-Erghail, by the site of Clochar, was gained over the Feara-Manach, by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn and the men of Magh-Itha, where fell the plunderers of Ard-Macha, namely, Sitric Ua Caemhain, and the son of Niall Ua Searraigh, and many other persons.
- LC1127, Gillachrist Ua hEighnigh, king of Feara-Manach, and chief king of Oirghiall, died in Clochar-Uí-nDaimhin, after choice penance.
- M1395, Ardstraw and Clogher Mac Daimhin, with all their various riches, were burned.
Síl Duibthir - mentioned with Fir Leamhna and Ui Cremthainn as one of the Trí Tuatha of Airghialla. The sept of Ua Laithéin are noted as chiefs of Síl Duibtire in the 10th/11th century.
O'Dugan (Poems) cites the tribe of Duibhthire, over the Clanna-Daimhin in Oirghialla, quite likely a reference to Síl Duibthir.
An early Genelach Sil nDuibthiri: (Book of Ballymote) Bec m. Fiacrach m. Cummuscaid m. Muiredaigh (a quo Ui Lathen) m. Cathal mac Echach mc. Duibthiri (a quo Sil nDuibhthiri) m. Echach Leamna m. Mailifothaid m. Mailiduin m. Fergusa m. Luachain m. Daimeine m. Cairpri Dam Argat.
An early Genelach Sil Duibthiri: (Book of Ballymote
Eochaidh m. Congalaich m. Osen m. Fhuacarta m. Cuilend m. Cathasaich m. Dungaili m. Dorbelaich m. Ailbrend m. Osen m. Becan m. Baedan m. Cairpri Dam Argait.
The Annals cite:
- U914, Mael Ruanaid son of Cumuscach, chief of Síl Duibthire
- U1062, Eochaid ua Laithéin, king of Síl Duibtire, died in penitence.
- U1086, Cumuscach ua Laithéin, king of Síl Duibtire, fell.
- U1089, Muirchertach ua Laithéin, king of Síl Duibtire, died.
Clann Sínaigh - Clann Sinaich is described by various source in Airtheraib, or Oriors, in county Armagh. The genealogies show them descended from Colla Fochríth. Ua Eochada (a surname?) is cited as a chief in the Annals.
An early Clainne Sínaich genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Amalgaid m. Máel Maire m. Eochada m. Cellaich m. Flannacáin m. Cóemáin m. Airechtaich m. Duib Dá Lethi m. Sínaich m. Feradaich m. Amalgada m. Ailella m. Echdach m. Feidelmid m. Fiachrach Cassáin m. Colla Fochríth.
The Annals cite:
U1018, Gilla Críst, son of Conaing son of Congalach, i.e. the chief of Clann Sínaig, died. U1038, Orc Allaid ua Ruadacáin, king of Uí Echach, was killed by the Clann Sínaig in Ard Macha on Monday the feast of Ultán 4 Sept., in revenge for the killing of Eochaid son of the Abbot and for the profanation of Ard Macha. U1059, Gilla Muire son of Airechtach, chief of Clann Sínaigh, was killed in Airthir. U1086, Gilla Moninne ua Eochada, chief of Clann Sínaigh, fell.
Muinter Pheodachain - their territory described as west of Lower Loch Erne, including much of the modern baronies of Magheraboy and Clanawley, co. Fermanagh. They were represented by the family of Mac Gilla Fhinnein (Mac Alinion), chieftains of Muinter Pheodachain. Their ancestry is disputed however one citation gives their ancestor as Peodachan, grandson of Elganach of clann Cormaic, in descent from Cairpre Damargait. Other sources claim they descend from the Cenel Conaill (northern Ui Neill), while another source (Fermanagh genealogies) cites them as descendants of the Munster Eoganachta!
The Annals cite:
- 1234.3, Aengus Mac Gillafinnen, Lord of Lough Erne (king of Fir-Manach), turned against O'Donnell, ... and was killed by him.
- 1281, Donnell Mac Gillafinnen, Chief of Muintir-Feodachain.
- 1285, Henry Mac Gillafinnen died.
- 1310, Cormac O'Flanagan, Chief of Tuathratha, was slain by Henry Mac Gillafinnen, Chief of Muintir Feódacháin.
- 1321, William and Matthew Mac Gillafinnen were slain by Henry Mac Gillafinnen, at a meeting of his own tribe.
- 1322, Henry Mac Gillafinnen, Chief of Muintir-Feodachain, was slain by the sons of Auliffe Maguire.
- 1351, Philip Maguire, Chief of Muinter-Pheodachain, and Enna O'Flanagan, Chief of Tuath-ratha, died.
- 1353, Flaherty Mac Gillafinnen and his kinsman, were killed by their own people.
- 1385, Gilchreest Mac Gillafinnen, Chief of Muintir-Pheodachain, died.
- 1389, Gilla-Isu Mag Uidhir, chief of Muinter-Peodachain, died.
- 1400, Amhlaim, son of Philip, son of Amhlaim, son of Donn Mag Uidhir the Rough, namely, chief of Muinter-Peodachain, died.
- 1404, Henry Mac Gilla-Finnein, chief of Muinter-Peodachain, died.
- 1412, Donough, the son of Donnell Mac Gillafinnen, died.
- 1426, Teige Mac Gillafinnen and his son, Hugh, were slain by Art, the son of Owen O'Neill.
- 1428, Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Maguire, was slain by Mac Gillafinnen and the sons of Donough Ballagh Magauran.
- 1439, Henry the Red, son of Brian Mac Gilla-Finnein (namely, chief of Muinter-Peodachain was Brian), died
- 1445, Mac Gillafinnen, i.e. Brian, Chief of Muintir-Pheodachain, a hospitable man, and the defender of his rights against his neighbours, died.
- 1451, Owen, son of Connor Mac Gillafinnen (i.e.) son of the chieftain of Muintir-Pheodachain, and Gillapatrick Boy Mac Gillafinnen, were slain by Maguire.
- 1452, Conor Mac Gillafinnen, Chief of Muintir-Pheodachain, died.
- 1492, Mac Gillafinnen, i.e. Turlough, the son of Brian, son of Henry Crossach, and Felim Roe, the son of Donough, who was son of Mac Gillafinnen, died.
Uí Dáire - The early genealogies cite Dáire, son of Ercc, son of Echach, son of Colla Uais, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of the Uí Dáire.
Uí Meic Brócc - The early genealogies cite Echdach Amainsen, son of Crimthann, son of Fiacc, son of Daig Duirn, son of Rochaid, son of Colla Fochríth, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of the Uí Meic Brócc.
Note: not to be confused with Uí Meicc Brócc, a segment of the Eóganacht in county Kerry.
Dál n-Oaich - The early genealogies cite Crimthann Oach, son of Fiacc, son of Daig Duirn, son of Rochaid, son of Colla Fochríth, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of the Dál n-Oaich.
Fir Lurg - barony of Lurg in Co. Fermanagh. The sept of O Maolduin (O'Muldoon) is noted here as chiefs (and early kings) of Lurg, aka Fir Lurg, Fear Luirg or Fer Luircc. O'Dugan mentions Muinter-Maoilduin of Lurg in his Topographical Poem. They were subjugated by the MacGuires at the end of the 14th century.
The Fir Luirg were listed among the Síl colla uais, descendants of Colla Uais.
The annals cite:
Ui Laoghaire of Loch Lir - O'Hart (Pedigrees) describes Muintir Taithligh (e.g. Tilly, Tully or MacTully) as chiefs of Hy-Laoghaire, of Lough Lir, a district which lay in the barony of Lurg, near Lough Erne, towards Tyrone. O'Dugan (Poems) mentions the Muinter Tiathligh as chieftains over the Ui-Laeghaire of Loch-Lir. O'Donovan desribes Ui Loeghaire Locha Lir in Tyone, east of the barony of Lurg in County Fermanagh. The Caislén Locha Laoghaire (castle of Loch Lir) is desribed in O'Donnells land in the index to the Four Masters. The Crannach Locha Laeghuiri is described in the same source in Baronscourt demesne, 2 miles west of Newtown Stewart, county Tyrone, with its castle was pulled down by Docwra in 1602.
- For 1000, Dubh Dara ua Maoile Duin, tighearna Fer Luirg, was slain.
- For 1033, Fogartach ua Aeda, king of Fir Luirg and Uí Fhiachrach of Ard Sratha, was killed by the Fir Manach.
- M1053, Niall Ua h-Eignigh, lord of Feara-Manach, and his brother, Gillachrist, were slain by the Feara-Luirg, through treachery.
- For 1053, Cú Rian Ua Maoile Dúin, tigherna Fer Luircc, do mharbhadh la Mac na h-Aidhche Ua Ruairc.
- M1053, Curian Ua Maelduin, lord of Feara-Luirg, was treacherously killed by Mac-na-haidhche Ua Ruairc, at his own meeting.
- T1053, Cu Chíar h-úa Maile Duin, rí Luirg, do marbadh la Mac na h-Aidche Ua Ruairc.
- For 1082, Flaithbhertach Ua Maoile Dúin, tigherna Luircc, died.
- LC1084, Donnchadh Ua Maelruanaidh, persecutor ecclesiarum, was slain by the Feara-Luirg.
- LC1102, Flaithbhertach, son of Fothadh, king of Uí-Fiachrach of Ard-Sratha, was slain by the Feara-Luirg.
- AI1118, Laidcnén Ua Duib Dara was slain by the Uí Fhiachrach of Ard Sratha.
- LC1119, Cúchollchaille O'Baighelláin, chief ollamh of Erinn in poetry, ... was slain by the Feara-Luirg and [by Ó Flannagáin of] Tuath-ratha.
- MCB1201, Donnchadh Mac Tighearnáin, lord of Clann Fhearghaile, the king of Fir Luirg, and many others were killed.
- LC1369, Tighernan O'Ruairc went to take a prey in Luirg, and brought it with him; and Aedh Og, son of Aedh O'Ruairc, was slain by O'Maeladuin of Lurg in the pursuit of the prey.
Note: Not to be confused with Ua Caindelbhain, kings of Laeghair in Meath; or with Ua Donnchadha, kings of Cenel-Laeghaire in Munster; or with Ui Laoghaire (O'Leary) in Co. Cork.
The annals cite for Laeghaire in this general region:
- M960, Dunchadh, son of Laeghaire, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.
- M1325, Donnell, the son of Brian O'Neill, Lord of Tyrone, died at Lough-Laeghaire.
- M1431, Naghtan O'Donnell went to assault the castle of Loch Laoghaire, and took it from Turlough O'Donnell; and all the spoils that he found in it he carried off.
- M1436, The Crannog of Loch-Laoghaire was taken by the sons of Brian O'Neill.
Fir na Craoibhe - or Creeve, near Coleraine, on the west of the river Bann, where Eas Craoibhe, or the Cutt's Fishery, is located, according to O'Donovan (Four Masters). It is equated with Faranacryve in the barony of Keenaght, county Derry, in Primate Colton's Visitation. The Cenél mBinnigh, of the Cenél Éoghain are cited to have migrated to this area at an early date. Later, the Clan Conchobhair, of the Cenél Éoghain, migrated into this region, the Ua Cathain (O'Kane) noted as chiefs of Fir na Craoibhe by the 12th century.
The annals cite:
- M1138, Raghnall, son of Imhar Ua Cathain, lord of the Craebh, Cianachta, and Fir-Li, fell through treachery and guile, by the Ui-Eoghain of the Valley.
- U1156, Aedh Ua Canannain, king of Cenel-Conaill, was killed by Ua Cathain and by the Men of the Craibh.
- MCB1183, Giolla Críost Ó Cathain, son of the king of Fir na Craoibhe, was killed.
- U1192, The door of the Refectory of the Penitentiary [of Daire] was made by Ua Cathain of the Craib and by the daughter of Ua Inneirghi.
- MCB1197, Conchobhar Ó Cathain, king of Fir na Craoibhe and Cianachta, fell.
- U1206, Maghnus Ua Cathain, son of the king of Ciannachta and Fir-na-craibhe, tower of championship and courage of the North, fell by the wound of an arrow.
- U1213, Ferghal Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta and Firna-craibhe, was killed by the Foreigners.
- U1247, Eachmarcach Ua Catha[i]n, king of Ciannachta and of Fir-na-craibhe, was killed by Maghnus Ua Catha[i]n, on his going upon a foray to the latter, to Airther-muighi in Dal-riatai.
Fir Rois - Feara Rois, or Fer Rois, was located in south Airghialla. Locations for Fir Roiss are cited in Onomasticon Goedelicum in the barony of Farney, co. Monaghan, and in the barony of of Ardee, co. Louth, and in Meath. Crích Ross stands 4 miles northewet of the point where counites Monaghan, Louth and Meath meet. An O'Finn sept is noted here as chiefs prior to the coming of the Anglo-Normans. O'Dugan (Poems) mentions O'Cosgraigh as king of smooth Feara-Rois.
An early genealogy of the Fir Rois:
Gairbith m. Maileidig m. Feradaich mc. Finain m. Failbi m. Duibthaich m. Crundmail m. Fathaich m. Faelbi m. Lugdach mc. Fiacrach Cenn Findain (a quo hI Ceind Find) m. Feidlimid.
The annals cite:
- FA722, Cú Bretan son of Congus, the king of Fir Rois.
- M811, Dunghal, son of Cuana, lord of Feara Rois.
- M812, Maelduin, lord of Feara Rois.
- M825, Maenach, son of Crunnmhael, Prior of Feara Rois, died.
- M849, Eochaidh, son of Cearnach, lord of Feara Rois, was slain by the foreigners.
- M892, Maeleitigh, son of Fearadhach, lord of Feara Rois, was slain by the foreigners.
- M935/937, Gairbhith, son of Maeleitigh, lord of Feara-Rois, was slain.
- M948, Conghalach, son of Ceallach, lord of Feara-Rois, fell.
- M953, Murchadh, son of Cumasgach, lord of Feara-Rois, died.
- M996, A battle was gained over the Ui-Meith, at Sruthair, by the son of Donnchadh Finn and the Feara-Rois, wherein the lord of Ui-Meith and many others were slain.
- M1028, Maelmordha, lord of Feara-Rois, was slain by the Conailli-Muirtheimhne.
- U1028, Mael Mochta, king of Fir Rois, was killed by the Conaille.
- For 1033, Giolla Seachnaill, mac Giolla Mo Chonna, tigherna Deisceirt Bregh, do mharbhadh la Fiora Rois.
- For 1052, Domhnall, mac Giolla Chríost, mic Con Cuailgne, do mharbhadh lá tigherna Fer Rois.
- For 1073, Cú Chaille Ua Finn, tigherna Fer Roiss, died.
- M1096, Sithfruich, son of Mac Sealbhaigh, lord of Feara-Rois, was slain by the Mughdhorna Maighen.
- M1109, A predatory excursion was made by Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Teamhair, on which he plundered the Feara-Rois, and slew Ua Finn, lord of Feara-Rois
Tuath Rátha (Toorah) - Ui Fhlannagáin (O'Flanagan) is cited in Topographical Poems as chief of Tuath Ratha, and O'Hart gives this as a territory which extended from Belmore to Belleek, and from Lough Melvin to lower Lough Erne, comprising the present barony of Magheraboy, co. Fermanagh. Tuath-Rátha is cited as one of the sub-denominations of Tír Conaill in the Book of Fenagh.
The annals cite:
- LC1103, A severe, fierce conflict between the men of Lurg and Tuath-Ratha, in which fell a multitude on both sides.
- M1166, A battle was gained by the Dartraighi, and the son of Donnchadh Ua Ruairc, over the men of Lurg and Tuath Ratha, where numbers were slain.
- MCB1310, Cormac Ó Flannagáin, chieftain of Tuath Ratha, was killed by (Henry Mac Gille-Finnein of) Muinntear Pheódhacháin.
- M1325, Melaghlin O'Flanagan, Chief of Tuath-ratha in Fermanagh, was slain by the sons of Dermot O'Flanagan.
- LC1349, Gilbert O'Flannagain, chieftain of Tuath-ratha, was slain by the sons of Brian O'Flannagain.
Further Ulster Reference: Uladh * Northern Ui Neill * Kings of Uladh * Annals
Further Province Reference: Index * Connacht * Leinster * Mide * Munster * Ulster
Further Reference at this site:
Ireland History in Maps - Home Page
Old Irish Surnames
Kingdoms and Clans
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