The Florida Indian Wars

Seminoles attack a settlement fort!
For a larger view of the picture, click here.


When the Euchees left Euchee Valley, relations with the other Natives deteriorated. At the close of the Creek War of 1813-14 in Alabama, fought so fiercely by men such as Andrew Jackson, David Crockett, and Sam Dale against Creeks such as Menawa, Osceola, Peter McQueen, and William (Red Eagle) Weatherford, many Creeks moved west. Some, however, went south to live with the Seminoles in Florida; one of these was Osceola., nephew of Peter McQueen. Additionally, there were many runaway slaves who had found shelter among the Indians. The Seminoles hated the whites. Florida was under Spanish rule at this time. Tensions were high. Fighting broke out. Attacks increased.

In 1817, General Andrew Jackson went into Florida and burned every Seminole village he found. He burned his way to the Spanish fort in Pensacola; then he took the fort. With this threat in hand, President John Quincy Adams then demanded that the Spanish government restore order. In 1818, Spain ceded Florida Territory to the United States.

The Seminoles were forced to live on an island reservation; conditions were terrible; many died; many, however, got stronger in their hatred. Osceola led them. In 1832, in the Treaty of Payne's Landing, the whites arranged for them all to be moved west. Enraged ever more, the Seminoles began to raid the settlers with a new vengeance. Many died on both sides. Fear was rampant.

The situation became so serious that in 1836-7, the Seminole War resulted.

Colonel John Love MacKinnon was the ranking military officer in that part of the state. Captain Laughlin Love MacKinnon commanded a company of Scottish troops. Other family members and friends who served were Angus Douglass, Giles Bowers and his brother Jim Bowers, and John and Angus Campbell. Several battles of the war were fought in Walton Co., FL. After one battle, Col. MacKinnon (considered the strongest man in the county) put a severely wounded Enos Evans on his shoulders, walked to where his horse stood, put Enos on the horse and rode eight miles to the MacKinnon home. The Colonel then removed the bullet from Evan's wound and saved the young man's life (again).

While John Love MacKinnon took command of the troops in his area, Catharine Douglass MacKinnon, his wife, kept a refuge for her neighbors. When John brought home two small Native boys that he had found abandoned during battle, Catharine took them into her home. She cared for them for several months until they could be returned to their own people.

There is a marvelous site called
The Florida War Historical Center

wherein you will find links to many pages including:

The Creek War of 1836 on the Chattahoochee River

The Creek War in West Florida, 1836-1840

The Incident at Hickory Sink

Indian Key is Destroyed

The Withlacoochee

Chief John Hicks (Tuko-see-mathla)

Dr. Welch's Accounts "Osceola Nikkanochee"

The Battle of Loxahatchee

Florida Militia Indians?

Map of North Florida during the 2nd Seminole War

Plus much more!

to Pioneers to the Southwest

Your comments are welcome. Please send them to me Carol Middleton