Indian Chiefs 1


(Kindly contributed by William C. Bell)

ALECK, CAPTAIN, or Captain Elcik, Creek Chief.--The few general facts of the early life of the Lower Creek chief, as given by himself, are that he had lived so long among the white people that he looked upon himself as much a white man as a red man; that the white people had given him the name he bore, Captain Aleck, and that he had always lived in friendship with the English.

Apart from these statements, an evidence of Captain Aleck's association with white people is the letter A, the first letter of Aleck, which he adopted as his mark in signing his name. That Captain Aleck had always been a true friend of the English is borne out by all the recorded facts extant of his history. He showed his loyalty by his actions. The first notice of him is in 1754, when all things pointed to rupture between England and France and between England and Spain. On November 11, accompanied by a few followers, he called on Governor John Reynolds in council in Savannah and informed him that the French had persuaded some of the Upper Creeks to come to Mobile and receive presents, and the Spaniards had done likewise in persuading some of the Lower Creeks to come to Pensacola for the same purpose. That he had not yet learned the objects of the French and Spaniards in these matters, but if he succeeded in doing so, he would inform the Governor. Captain Aleck's talk agreed with the reports that had already come to the ears of the Governor that the French and Spaniards were very busy in endeavoring to win the Creeks over to their respective interests. Some presents were the next day presented to Captain Aleck and his followers, with which they were well pleased.

On May 11, 1757, Captain Aleck and his brother Will, accompanied by twelve men and women, had a talk with Governor Ellis in the council chamber in Savannah. After a conversation on several topics, the Governor told Captain Aleck that the Creeks should join no party to the prejudice of the English, to which Captain Aleck gave his full assent. The Governor then expatiated largely upon the cruelties of the French in all their proceedings, and instanced a recent attempt by them to induce the Choctaws and Cherokees to exterminate the Chickasaws, which attempt proceeded solely from this desire to get possession of the lands of the Chickasaws. That the Great King expected the Creeks to join the English and assist them in driving back the French, who were daily encroaching on the Indians' lands, and who, if they should grow stranger, would treat the Creeks as they had lately tried to treat the Chickasaws. On the contrary, the English had honestly paid for the lands which they got from the Indians. But the policy of the French was to become masters of the Indians' lands, after murdering the Indian inhabitants; and their present designs were either to cut the Indians off entirely or to reduce them, their wives and children, to a state of slavers. The English, on the other hand, were a people fond of trade and sent their ships laden with merchandise to all parts of the world; that wherever they went, their study was to make people free and happy; and when they talked, their tongues and hearts went fast together; that the Great King showed the love he bore his red children by presents and by frequent and friendly talks.

The French too gave presents, but these presents, like the rum drank by the Indians, however sweet it might be at first, always made them sick in the end. After other remarks, by no means complimentary to the French, the Governor closed his talk by saying that every Indian who went to war against the French, should receive for every French scalp a reward equal in value to eight pounds of deer skins; and for a French prisoner a reward equal in value to sixteen pounds of deer skins, which he would much rather pay for than the scalps. For, although the English were known to be warriors, it was likewise known that they took no pleasure in shedding human blood. Captain Aleck in reply said that the Governor's talk was very true and just, that he had come down to hear a good talk and not for presents, and so was not disappointed; that his brother would set off to the nation in a few days, and there was a beloved day approaching and his brother there would declare this talk before all the people, and no one could say that he had never heard it. Captain Aleck then applied for a grant of a piece of land or small island on which he was settled, but as he could not satisfactorily give its location, the consideration of his request was postponed, but he was told that if the land was vacant, or if the proprietor of it would accept other land in its place, he should have a grant for it. This matter settled, the Governor invited Captain Aleck and his brother to dine with him.

Nothing further is on record about Captain Aleck until January, 1763, when he sought the good offices of Governor James Wright to recover his wife, who had been stolen from him by some Yuchee Indians and carried into the province of South Carolina. Governor Wright wrote to Governor Boone of South Carolina desiring him to use every effort to securer the return of Captain Aleck's wife.

Captain Aleck was present as Speaker of the Upper and the Lower Creeks at the Great Congress in Augusta in November, 1763. On one occasion during the six days in which the Congress was in session he spoke of the frequent stealing of horses by white people and Indians and proposed that some means should be adopted to prevent it for the future. These words speak high for Captain Aleck's desire for peace and order on the frontier, the crime of horse stealing being promotive of frequent murders and killings by both white people and Indians, often culminating in wars. Captain Aleck also attended the Pensacola Congress in May, 1765. During its six days sessions he made several appropriate talks and was one of the signers of the treaty. A part of Captain Stuart's talk on May 30 to one of Captain Aleck's is here given as it bears witness to the moral worth of the Muscogee chief: "I am glad to find you in the same good disposition in which I left you at Augusta, of which you have given so many proofs, during the course of your life; the white people must always put a value on your friendship, as the Governor and I ever will. We are very sensible of the effect and influence your talks have had on your nation and we desire you may continue them.' All the facts preserved in historic records, relative to Captain Aleck are favorable to his character as a man and a leader of his people.

The last-historical notice of Captain Aleck occurs January 10, 1768. There having been a disagreement between the Georgians and the Creeks with regard to the boundary line which separated the two, on that day, Governor Wright and Captain Aleck, representing the Creek Confederacy, came to an agreement that the dividing line should "commence at the Ogeechee river where the lower trading path leading from Mount Pleasant on Savannah river to the Lower Creek Nation crosses the said river Ogeechee, and thence in a straight line cross the country to that part of the river Alatamaha opposite to the entrance or mouth of a certain Creek on the south side of the said river Alatamaha commonly called Fen-hollow or Turkey Creek, and that the line should be thence continued from the mouth of the said Creek across the Country and in a southwest course to the St. Mary's river, so as to reach it as far up as the tide flows or swells."

Bibliography.--The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. vii, pp. 33, 34, 566-569; Ibid. vol. IX, pp. 17, 18; The Colonial State of North Carolina, vol. XI, pp. 179, 184, 185, 188-190, 194, 203;

TIMPOOCHEE BARNARD -- Mississippi agent of the Lower Creeks in 1793 and 1794 and was one of the interpreters at the treaty of Coleraine in 1796. He died at an advanced age on Flint River, Georgia, the year not known. But little is known of the early life of Timpoochee Barnard. His mother carefully taught him to speak her native Yuchee dialect, while no doubt he learned much English from his father. Following the custom of his people, he also mastered the Muscogee dialect, as a knowledge of it was indispensable in the public and private life of the Creek people. Timpoochee Barnard first became prominent in General Floyd's campaign against the Creek Indians in January, 1814. He was commissioned major, and commanded one hundred Yuchee warriors.

In the latter part of the night of January 27, the Creeks, in large force, made a furious attack on General Floyd's troops, who were encamped in Calebee swamp. Captain John Broadnax was in command of a detachment, stationed at some distance from the main army. The Creeks, discovering the isolation of the detachment, assailed it, surrounded it, and cut it off from the other troops. Major Barnard, taking in the situation, made a desperate onset on the Creeks with his Yuchee warriors, drove them back and so opened a way for Broadnax's men to join the main army. This heroic exploit gave Major Barnard a great name with the Americans. He continued to serve in the army with distinction until the close of the war. He was twice wounded. General Jackson, many years afterwards paid this high tribute to Major Barnard in a conversation with his son William: "A braver man than your father never lived." Major Barnard was present at the treaty of Fort Jackson, August 9, 1814, signing the treaty as "Captain of the Uchees."

While no doubt a man of military instincts, Major Barnard was domestic in his habits and devotedly atta///?? them girls??//, and they all had the reputation of being the handsomest children in the Creek Nation. His son, William, received a fair education, and in after years served in the Seminole war of 1835 under Paddy Carr. The military career of Major Barnard did not close with the Creek War. In 1818, in command of a band of Yuchce warriors, he served under his old commanded, General Jackson, through the Seminole War of that year. He distinguished himself in the fight of April 12, 1818, at Econaffinnah or Natural Bridge, where was rescued Mrs. Stuart, the only survivor of the massacre of Lieutenant Scott's party on Apalachicola river, of November 30, 1817. Major Barnard,was opposed to the treaty of the Indian Springs, and was one of the delegation that went to Washington to protest against the validity of that treaty. After this event, he continued to reside his remaining years at his home near Fort Mitchell, blessed with all the wealth that was desirable, and noted for his public spirit, his hospitality and benevolence. Thus passed away a genuine man, that was an honor to the Indian race.

Bibliography.--McKenny and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1854), vol. II, pp. 25-28; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900) p. 585; White's Historical Collections of Georgia (1855) p. 166; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 54, 109; Handbook of the American Indians (1810), Part 2, p. 752.

JIM BOY, or Tustenaggee Emathla -- A Creek Chief born in the present Macon County. A participant at Fort Mims; served in the war of 1813-14; in the uprising of 1836, and in the Florida War of 1837. He died in 1841 in the Western Creek Nation.was born about 1790 in the Creek Nation, the birth-place not known. Tustenaggee is the Creek term for "warrior;" Emathla is a war title, corresponding nearly to "disciplinarian." Nothing is known of Jim Boy's life prior to the outbreak of the Creek War of 1813, where Pickett calls him High Head Jim. He was chief of the Atossees, and commanded the hostile Creeks at the battle of Burnt Corn, fought March 27, 1813. It is not known in what other battles he was engaged during the war. After its close, he settled near Polecat Spring, and there built a little town called Thlopthlcco. In 181S he served under General McIntosh against the Seminoles in Florida. During the Creek troubles of 1836, he attached himself to the friendly party. At the close of these troubles he was solicited by General Jessup to raise warriors for service against the Seminoles in Florida. He and Paddy Carr accordingly raised nine hundred and fifty warriors and with them reached the seat of war in September. Here the Creeks were organized into a regiment war in September. Here the Creek s were organized into a regiment and placed under the command of Major David Moniac. Jim Boy was with his regiment in two battles and in a number of skirmishes in the Seminole war. The battles were the second battle of Wahoo Swamp, fought in November, 1836, and the battle of Lake Monroe, fought February 8, 1837. The Creeks fought courageously in both these engagements.

On his return from Florida, he found that his family had been removed west in the emigration of the Creeks, and that all his property in the nation had been destroyed. He had joined the army in Florida under a promise of the commending general that his family and property should be cared for, and that he should be remunerated for any loss he might sustain during his absence. This promise was not kept. But all this was a slight trouble compared to the death of four, out of his nine children, who were of the two hundred and thirty-six Creeks that were lost in the sinking of the emigration steamboat, Mommouth.

Jim Boy's home in the Creek Nation west, was near Wetumpka, where he died in 1851. The name of his wife was Nihethoye. Rev. William Jim Boy, a well known Methodist minister in the Creek nation, is a grandson.

Jim Boy is described as a remarkably handsome man, full six feet high, perfectly formed and with a commanding air. The late Rev. John Brown of Daleville, Mississippi, who served in the Seminole War, states that on one occasion, at General Jessup's headquarters, he saw Jim Boy, clad in his full war dress, engaged in conversation with the general; that he was struck with Jim Boy's appearance, and with the fact that he was by far a finer looking man than General Jessup.

References--McKenney and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1842), vol. iii, 95, 96; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 521-524; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, pp. 91, 97, 98; Halbert and Ball's Creek War, pp. 125-132, 300-301; Drake's Indians, fifteenth edition, pp. 474, 476, 477, 479.

BIG WARRIOR, Creek chief, was born probably at Tuckabatchee and about 1760. No facts have been preserved of his early life. His marriage to the deserted or discarded wife of Efa Hadjo, must have taken place about 1785, as Tuckenea, his oldest son by her, was a man of affairs in 1810. Big Warrior was not of full Muscogee blood, but was a descendant of a Piankashaw Indian, and he made no little boast of this northern Indian blood. His first recorded appearance in public life was at the treaty of Coleraine in June, 1796; his next appearance at the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in June, 1802. Thirteen days after this treaty, but on the treaty ground, Efa Hadjo, the speaker and first chief of the nation, abdicated his office to Micco Hopoie, and the place of the national council was transformed from Tuckabatchee to the Hickory Ground.

From the lack of records it cannot be stated in what year Big Warrior became Speaker of the Upper Creeks. It may have been in 1812, on the death of Efa Hadjo. On his attaining this office it seems that Tuckabatchee again became the national capital. In 1810, or thereabouts, a Scotchman from Pensacola came to Tuckabatchee and spent some time with Big Warrior, with whom he had many talks through a negro interpreter belonging to the Tuckabatchee chief. The topics of these conversations were never revealed, except that during his visit the Scotch man asked William Weatherford, who was then in Tuckabatchee, how many warriors the Creek nation could raise. Soon after the departure of the Scotchman, Tuskenea, Big Warrior's son, with a party went north and visited the Shawnees and some other tribes. He returned in the summer of 1811. In the fall of the year, Tecumseh at the head of a band of Shawnees came to Tuckabatchee. It is possible that the visit of the Scotchman to Tuckabatchee, and the visit of Tuskenea to the north, may have had some connection with the coming of Tecumseh. Soon after the Shawnees arrived at Tuckabatchee, the notable council took place, about which much has been written, some fact and some fiction. During his stay in the Creek nation, Tecumseh made several efforts to detach Big Warrior from his friendly attitude towards the United States.

Some of Big Warrior's contemporaries have represented him at the time of the outbreak of the Creek War, and even during its continuance, as being at heart unfriendly to the American government, and only adhered to it from a fear of the consequences, should he take the opposite side. This view was adopted by Pickett, the historian, but it does not seem to be borne out by a close study of Big Warrior's actions during those troubled times. The peace party among the Upper Creeks were greatly in the minority.

There were twenty-nine Upper Creek towns and villages that belonged to the war party and only five to the peace party. Notwithstanding this preponderating majority. Big Warrior, who, at this time was certainly the Speaker of the Upper Creeks, did all in his power to induce the hostile chiefs to come over to the side of the Federal Government. He sent a special messenger to the Alabamas, who were the most implacably hostile of all the Upper Creeks. But all of Big Warrior's efforts towards the pacification of the hostile element were of no avail from their point of view, since he had been mainly instrumental in the execution of Little Warrior and his party for the murders committed by them in February, 1813, near the mouth of Ohio. For using,in this matter his executive authority, which was directed agreeably to the requirements of the treaty of Coleraine, Big Warrior, along with six other chiefs, was formally condemned to death by a council of the war party.

By midsummer of 1813 this party had become so dangerous, that Big Warrior built for himself and followers a fort at Tuckabatchee, which he filled with supplies. Here he was besieged a number of days by the Red Sticks until two hundred warriors from Coweta came to his relief, and carried Big Warrior and all his people safe to Coweta, which became the great place of refuge for the friendly Creeks. Big Warrior from the very beginning of the Creek troubles until his arrival at Coweta certain!y conducted himself as a brave and honorable chief. Without fear or favor he cooperated in the execution of Little Warrior's party, and did his whole duty in attempting to pacify the large hostile element of his people. Lastly, we see him with his few faithful followers in their fort at Tuckabatchee besieged by their enraged countrymen, bravely holding the fort for weeks, with the full knowledge that should the fort fall no mercy would be extended to its inmates. A consideration of these facts show that historians have been unjust to the memory of Big Warrior. While he contin/// -- -- far as the records show, he does not figure in any of the battles. Perhaps he was serving his people better by remaining with them at Coweta. Pickett represents him as being present at Weatherford's surrender.

Four months later, as Speaker of the Upper Creeks, he was one of the signers at Fort Jackson. Before signing the treaty Big Warrior made an address to General Jackson, in which, in the name cf the Creek Nation, he tendered donations of land to him, to Colonel Hawkins, the Creek agent, and to George Mayfield and Alexander Cornells, Creek interpreters. Big Warrior was also a signer of the treaties of the Creek Agency, January 22, 1818, and of the treaty of Indian Spring, January 8, 1821.

Big Warrior died in 1824 in Washington while in attendance there with a delegation of his people. General Woodward describes Big Warrior as the largest man that he had ever seen among the Creeks and as spotted as a leopard. The name of only two of his children, both sons, Tuskenea and Yargee, have been preserved. As an incident in the career of Big Warrior, may be cited,--his conversation in 1822, with the Missionary, Rev. Lee Compere, in which, in giving the traditional history of the Creeks, he stated that in remote times they "had even whipped the Indians then living in the territory of South Carolina and wrested much of their country from them." Modern philological research has confirmed this tradition of Big Warrior as being true history; for the local names of the parts of South Carolina, traversed by the Del Pardo expedition of 1567, and recorded by its historians are significant in the Muscogee tongue, showing a Muscogee occupancy of these parts. Hence, apart from being a wise Creek counsellor, Big Warrior should be accorded some reputation as a man thoroughly and patriotically conversant with the traditional history of his people.

Died, on the 8th inst. at Washington City, Big Warrior, principal chief of the Creek nation. He was a man of great talents as a savage warrior--a person of immense bodily powers, and it has been said of him that he was endowed with a mind as colossal as his body. Although he possessed not the advantages of education, or even of understanding but little of the English language, yet he has done much towards improving the condition of his people, and had great influence over them. During the late Indian wars, he had been uniformly friendly to the whites and fought for them in many battles.--(From Nile's Register, March 19, 1825. )

Bibliography.--Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 80, 514, 518, 520, 593, 599, 618, 621; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 36, 37, 44, 94, 9~, 96, 110, 116; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. I, pp. 837-845, 848, 849, 851; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 755> 762; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. I, p. 699; Brewer's Alabama (----), p. 17, footnote.

COLBERT, WILLIAM, Chickasaw Indian chief, was a native Alabamian and Revolutionary soldier, serving under Gen. Arthur St. Clair and leading his tribe against the hostile Indians, who operated with the British. In the War of 1812, he again led his tribe against the Creeks, pursuing them to Apalachicola, Fla., killing a number and bringing eighty-five prisoners back to Montgomery. He was, in 1816, the guest of the U. S. government at Washington, going there at the head of a Chickasaw delegation and being called "General" Colbert. He settled at Colbert's Ferry, on the Tennessee River, and the county laid off there was named in his honor. His sons were George, who owned the Ferry; Levi, who settled on Bear Creek, and James, who farmed in Colbert County. They went to the Indian Territory with the remnant of their tribe. One Herbert Colbert, afterwards, was the representative of the Chickasaw nation in congress.

EFA HADJO, Efau Haujo, or MAD DOG, Creek Chief.--It would be an interesting fact, if it could be proven, that the Effa Adio who signed the treaty made by the English and Creeks in June, 1765, at Pensacola, was the same man as Efa Hadjo, who was in after times so long the speaker of the Creek Nation. Be the fact as it may, the first notice of Efa Hadjo or Mad Dog in April 1792, shows him a partisan of the adventurer Bowles. Many of the ignorant Creeks at that time supposed that Bowles represented the English government, and that England, France and Spain were opposed to the Americans. A year later, however, in April, 1793 found Efa Hadjo Hadjo a decided friend of the Americans. Alexander Cornell in a letter to James Seagrove, the Creek agent, in April, 1893, writes: "If every man should exert himself as well as the Mad Dog, and the headmen of the Upper towns, and Mr. Weatherford, we should have an everlasting peace with our brothers of the United States." From the lack of records, it cannot be stated when Efa Hadjo became the speaker of the Creek Nation. He did not hold this office at the treaty of Coleraine in June, 1796, though he.was one of the signers of the treaty. Fusatchee Mico, the Whitebird King of the Hickory Ground, was the speaker at Coleraine. Efa Hadjo was the speaker of the Creek Nation at the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802. He also at the same time was speaker of the Upper Creeks, with Coweta Micco, as speaker of the Lower Creeks. His several talks at this treaty were all sensible and relevant to the subjects under consideration. Twelve days after the treaty Efa Hadjo abdicated his station as speaker and first chief of the nation to Hopoie Micco an~ transferred the seat of the National Councils from Tuckabatchee to the Hickory Ground. He was at this time, as he stated, "getting in age." The action of Efa Hadjo was either of short duration or was not accepted by the Nation, as can be seen from Colonel Hawkins' notice of the chief in 1799.

"This (Tuckabatchee) is the residence of Efan Hanjo, one of the great medal chiefs, the speaker of the Nation at the National Council. He is one of the best informed men of the land, and faithful to his National engagements; He has five black slaves, and a stock of cattle and horses; but they are of little use to him; the ancient habits instilled in him by French and British agents, that red chiefs are to live on presents from their white friends, is so riveted that he claims it as a tribute due to him, and one that never must be dispensed with."

Efa Hadjo died in Tuckabatchee in 1812.

References.--American State Papers. Indian Affair.s, vol. 1, pp. 297, 367, 382, 383, 385, 390, 396, 424, 461, 670, 672-681, 840; Hawkins' Sketch of the Creek Country, p. 30.

FRANCIS, JOSIAH, or Hillis Hadjo, Creek Chief, born probably about 1770, and in Autauga town, was the son of David Francis a white trader and silversmith, who lived many years in Autauga Town, and made silver ornaments and implements for the Indians. The name of his mother is not known, and apart from his father, the only other fact recorded as to his family relationship is that he was a half-brother of Sam Moniac. Hillis Hadjo, properly spelled Hilis Hadsho, is the name of an official of he Creek busk; "hilis," medicine, "hadsho," crazy. Some corrupt spellings of the name are Hidlis Hadjo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc. In his youth Josiah Francis learned the silversmith trade of his father. The first recorded public fact of his life is being created a prophet, which was about the latter part of 1812. It took Sukaboo, the great Shawnee prophet, ten days' work to endow Francis with prophetic powers. When this was completed, Francis was considered the greatest prophet in the Creek Nation. He himself now assumed the role of prophet-maker. He made many prophets, among others, Jim Boy of Atossee.

In June, 1813, just before the outbreak of the Creek War, General James Wilkinson of the United States Army, noted the presence of Francis, with a large number of followers, camped at or near the Holy Ground on the Alabama River, evidently making preparations for a war of destruction upon the white and the half-breed Indian settlements in South Alabama. For the purpose of procuring ammunition for the oncoming war, early in July, Josiah Francis, commanding the Alabama, Peter McQueen at the head of the Tallassee warriors, and Jim as principal-war chief, commanding the Atossees, with many packhorses took up the line of march from the Holy Ground for Pensacola. They were successful in attaining their object, and on their return march, while encamped on Burnt Corn Creek, they were attacked, on July 27, by a body of Americans, under Colonel James Coller, and there was fought what is known as the battle of Burnt Corn.

The victory wa/// prestige in their defeat, no doubt, prompted the Creeks to begin the war on a larger scale. About the middle of August a great Creek council was held at the Holy Ground. After much debate and deliberation, it was resolved by the council to divide the Creek forces into two divisions, and with each to make simultaneous attacks on Fort Mims and Fort Sinquefield. Hopie Tustenuggee commanded the larger division that was to assault Fort Mims, while Josiah Francis with one hundred and twenty-five warriors was to operate against Fort Sinquefield. On the night of August 30, Francis and his warriors camped in the Wolf's Den, a large deep ravine three miles east of Fort Madison. Thence, the next day, they moved northward and massacred twelve members of the James and Kimble families, living on Bassett's Creek. The bodies of the dead were, the next day, brought to Fort Sinquefield for burial by a party sent out for that purpose. The day following, September 2, about eleven o'clock, a part of the people were out of the fort engaged in the burial, and a number of the women were at the spring, some engaged in washing, and others who had come to bring buckets of water back to their families in the fort. The time was propitious for Francis and his warriors, who were advancing in a stooping position to cut off the burial party and the women at the spring.

The Creeks were discovered in time and all, with one exception, made their escape into the fort, upon which a furious attack was made. After two hours' fighting, Francis was repulsed with the loss of eleven warriors and many wounded. He then retreated across the Alabama River, where several of the wounded died. There is no record of Josiah Francis in other engagements of the Creek War. After the defeat at the Horseshoe, he and Nehemathla Micco placed their people on the Catoma, not far above the Federal crossing. But they remained there a very short time, for General Jackson writing from Fort Jackson on April 18, states "Hillishagee, their great prophet, has absconded."

Francis an Florida. Early in 1815 Colonel Edward Nichols negotiated a treaty with the fugitive Creeks and the Seminoles. This treaty was an offensive and defensive alliance between the English government and the Indians, and through it the Creeks Florida were led to believe that they would secure the restitution of the lands ceded by the treaty of Fort Jackson. Early in the summer following Nichols sailed for London, taking with him Francis and other Indians, Creeks and Seminoles. Nichols hoped that his treaty would be ratified by the British Foreign Office, but it refused to receive him or even listen to his proposals.

While Colonel Nichols' treaty was thus ignored by the English government, his friend Francis was treated with much distinction. He was created a colonel in the British army (colonial establishment), with a full uniform; was presented with a diamond-studded snuff box, a gold-mounted tomahawk, five hundred pounds in gold, and some jewels for his daughters. He was admitted to an interview with the Prince Recent which is thus described by a London Journal: "The sound of trumpets announced the approach of the patriot Francis, who fought so gloriously in our cause in America during the late war. Being dressed in a most splendid suit of red and gold, and wearing a tomahawk set with gold gave him a highly imposing appearance."

Francis and the other Indians were sent back to Florida in 1816, by the English government in a sloop of war. It would have been well for Francis had he been content with the honor and glory which he had now received from the English government and had made peace with the Americans. But the old war spirit was too strong and the close of 1817 found him inciting the refugee Creeks and the Seminoles to war. About this time, an American soldier, named Duncan McKrimmon, was captured by the Indians near Fowl Town. He was taken by his captors to Francis' town, delivered to the chief, who sentenced him to death by the torture, in retaliation for the killing of four Indians by the Americans in their attack on Fowl Town. But McKimmon's life was saved through the entreaties of Francis' daughter, Malee. (This name is incorrectly given in some books as Milly. Malee is the Indian imperfect articulation of Mary, there being none in the Choctaw Muscogee dialects, l being used or substituted in its place.)

In the following April, Francis and Nehemathla Micco were captured, and without the formality of a trial, General Jackson ordered both to be hanged. Nehemathla Micco was justly put to death on the charge of torturing his prisoner, Lieutenant Scott, to death. But it may be questioned whether Francis ought to have been executed on the two charges brought against him,-- complicity in the massacres during the Creek War, and for inciting the refugee Creeks to war. As to the first charge, Francis was no more guilty than other Creeks for massacres during the war and. whom Gen. Jackson did not punish.

As to the other charges it may be said that he was not a party to the treaty of Fort Jackson, of August, 1814, a treaty not recognized by the Creeks in Florida. Hence from his point of view he had the right to renew or continue the struggle of the Creeks against the Americans in Florida. Francis is described by an officer of Jackson's army as "a handsome man, six feet high; would weigh one hundred and fifty pounds; of pleasing manners; conversed well in English and Spanish; humane in his disposition; by no means barbarous--withal a model chief." Accepting as true this favorable account of Francis' character, it may be inferred that, while he himself was adverse to needless barbarity in war, he was unable to control his warriors, as in the case of the Kimball-James Massacre and the killing of Mr. Philips at Fort Sinquefield. Francis was survived by his wife and several daughters. His wife was a halfblood, her name not recorded, and said to be a half-sister of William Weatherford. Of his daughters, the name of the youngest, Malee, incorrectly given by some as Milly, has been preserved, and ever will be remembered for the roman story of this Alabama-born girl, her beauty, her accomplishments, her saving the life of McKrimmon, her grief over the execution of her father, her marriage to McKrimmon, her subsequent life,--all surpass in interest the somewhat apocryphal story of the Virginia-born Pocahontas.

References.--Meek's Romantic Passages in Southern History (1857), p. 271; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's edition, 1900), pp. 514, 515, 521, 544; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, 1857, pp. 43, 53, 97; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 850, 853; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. i, pp. 700, 745; Buell's History of Jackson (1904), vol. ii, pp. 122-125; Parton's Life of Jackson ( 1861), vol. ii, pp. 39S, 397, 415, 420, 431, 437, 455, 457; Halbert and Ball's Creek War (1895), pp. 184, 185, 197, 198; Handbook of American Indians (1911), Part i, pp. 549, 550; Claiborne's Mississippi (1800), p. 323.

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