The American Civil War
By John Henry Knowlton, Jr., J_H-Knowlton@email.msn.com, Ottis Edwin Guinn, Sr., &
The excitement prevailing here for
Several days past rose to the very
Highest pitch this morning, when it
was ascertained that war had been actually
commenced and Fort Sumpter attacked by
the forces of South Carolina.
The respected Civil War scholar, Bruce Canton, once said: “What we shall some day become will grow inexorably out of what today we are; and what we are now, in its turn, comes out of what earlier Americans were – out of what they did and thought and dreamed and hoped for, out of their trials and their aspirations, out of their shining victories and their dark and tragic defeats.”
To fully comprehend how we got ourselves into a War which would leave 133,821 Southerner Americans and 110,070 Northerner Americans dead, we must first divorce ourselves from the emotional and sometimes romanticized concepts of why so many were willing to fight and die. The Britannica states the situation as dryly and succinctly as possible without so much as hinting of the terrible suffering produced by the greatest National tragedy America has ever known.
American Civil War, also called WAR BETWEEN THE STATES, in U.S. history, a four-year war (1861-65) between the federal government of the United States and 11 states that asserted their right to secede from the Union.
Trouble had been brewing for decades. With the exception of slavery, the issues were much the same as they are today: how much right does the Federal Government have to meddle in the affairs of the states. Slavery was just one hot button of many, although the freeing of the slaves ultimately became the lasting legacy of that War. The South eventually had enough and rightly decided that since they had voluntarily joined the Union, they could voluntarily leave the Union.
We shall leave it to historians to fill out the details of what happened next, and leave it to others to endlessly debate the details of exactly what they were fighting for, and focus instead, on the lives of our ancestors. To appreciate their roles in that awful drama, that terrible clash of human hopes and passions, we must study little scraps and bits of information our ancestors left behind. In letters and family traditions, they reach through the years to share a sensitive record of the complexities of their lives with us as they fought, bled and died for their beliefs. Let us not judge them by the standards of our day but rather honor their memories by preserving and passing on to future generations their stories, understanding what the War cost them and what it won for mankind as a whole.
Those Who Served
(Last Updated March 26, 2002)
This is a very rough draft. Please contact email@example.com if you have additional information or corrections regarding these individuals or if you have additional names of Clopton descendants or the husbands of Clopton descendants who served during the American Civil War.
The units the Clopton relatives belonged to are stated below in standard military order of battle format. To save space the designation "Regiment" has been omitted in most cases and is implied. Example the 30th Tennessee Infantry Regiment where the word regiment has been dropped to save space in number 1 below. Regiments were usually formed sequentially so the 30th Tennessee Infantry would have been the 30th infantry regiment formed in the State of Tennessee. In most cases digit numbers are used to annotate the unit rather than spelling out the number. Many units were consolidations of other smaller companies and/or the remains of decimated regiments. This is why they may have belonged to several regiments.
1. Walter B. Baker, C.S.A. Prisoner of War, the husband of Clopton descendant Mary E. Hampton. He served in Company F, 30th Tennessee Infantry. He was captured at Ft. Donelson and exchanged and detailed to Pioneer Corps. At the battle of Fort Donelson the badly outnumbered Confederates lost, opening the Tennessee River to Union troops. The February 15, 1862 issue of the Washington Star stated: “How any portion of the rebel army in Fort Donelson can possibly escape death or capture, is past us to divine. . . [and] Fort Donelson is taken, with 15,000 prisoners.” This marked the first large surrender of prisoners of the War. The treatment of these prisoners set the tone for the control and care of prisoners throughout the conflict. One company of the 30th Tennessee was on duty at Fort Henry on its surrender, and the rest of the regiment was marching to its relief when it fell. The regiment was in the four days' engagement at Fort Donelson, and was surrendered on the morning of the 16th February 1862, and sent immediately to prison. The enlisted men went to Camp Butler, Illinois, the line officers to Camp Chase, and then to Johnson's Island, Ohio, and the field officers to Camp Warren, Massachusetts. The field officers were exchanged August 3, 1862; the line officers and enlisted men were released the 30th day of September, 1862 at Vicksburg, Mississippi. ordered to Holly Springs, Mississippi October 10, 1862, and was in a number of engagements in North Mississippi till it reached Grenada, Mississippi December 1, 1862. It participated in the following battles: Fort Donelson; rear guard in Van Dom's Army while retreating through North Mississippi; Chickasaw Bayou near Vicksburg; Port Hudson, Louisiana; siege of Jackson, Mississippi; Missionary Ridge; Battle of Nashville; Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina; it was paroled at Greensboro, May 1, 1865.
2. James Christopher Baytop, C.S.A., the husband of Clopton descendant Josephine Spotswood Lewis, of “Montrose.”
3. Stacey Budd Bispham, C.S.A., of “Grassdale,” Fauquier County, son of Mary Ann Vanderwall Clopton and her husband, William Newbold Bispham, D.D.S. He served with Mosby’s Battalion throughout the War. His wife, Ellen Lewis Hill, was the niece of Lieutenant General Ambrose P. Hill, General Robert E. Lee’s Famous lieutenant who played such a significant role in the War. Fort A. P. Hill in Virginia is named for him.
4. James Henderson Blount, Sr., C.S.A., of Georgia, husband of Clopton descendant Eugenia Clopton Wiley.
5. Francis Marshall Boykin, II., M.D., C.S.A., of Smithfield, Virginia, husband of Clopton descendant Mildred James Hill, of “Forkland.”
6. Champ Langford Bradford, C.S.A., son of Clopton descendant of Thomas Jefferson Bradford, of St. Clair County, Alabama, and his wife, Nancy A. Langford.
7. John Franklin Bradford, C.S.A., of St. Clair County, Alabama, son of Clopton descendant of Philemon Bradford, Jr., and his wife, Susannah Truss.
8. Philemon Henry Bradford, C.S.A., Died in Action, of St. Clair County, Alabama, son of Clopton descendant of Philemon Bradford, Jr., and his wife, Susannah Truss. He was the husband of Mary J. McClooney. He died of wounds received at Resaca, Georgia, site of the first major battle of the Atlanta Campaign. It is considered one of the bloodier battles of the Campaign with approximately 6,100 casualties, 2,600 of that number were Confederate soldiers.
9. Thomas Davis Bradford, C.S.A., Died in Action, of St. Clair County, Alabama, son of Clopton descendant of Philemon Bradford, Jr., and his wife, Susannah Truss.
11. William Jackson Christmas, C.S.A., of Virginia, son of Clopton descendant of Charles Nelson Christmas, of “Apple Grove,” and his wife, Sarah Massie, of Hanover County, Virginia. He was the husband of Amy Swift.
12. Robert E. Claiborne, C.S.A., of Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, son of Clopton descendant of James Claiborne, Sr., of Dinwiddie County, Virginia, and his wife, Sarah Brooking. He was the husband of Emily Ann Lanier. He served as a private in Company B, 3rd Georgia Reserves.
13. Thomas Buller Claiborne, C.S.A., Died as a Prisoner of War, of Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, son of Clopton descendant of James Claiborne, Sr., of Dinwiddie County, Virginia, and his wife, Sarah Brooking. He was the husband of Louisiana Lanier. He served as a private in Company F, 66th Georgia Volunteer Infantry and was captured near Atlanta July 22, 1864. He was imprisoned at Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, and died at the prison or shortly thereafter. Conditions at the Federal prisons were no better than those found in the South. In fact, the United States Government’s U. S. Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, went out of his was to see that conditions were primitive. When a Confederate officer complained to Commissary General William Hoffman about the “inhuman treatment” he had suffered at Camp Chase, Hoffman replied that the treatment was “retaliation for the innumerable outrages which have been committed on our people.”
14. (Captain) Albert G. “A.G.” Clopton, C.S.A., Prisoner of War, of Huntsville, Alabama, and Texas, son of William Hales Clopton, Sr., and his wife, Avery Garrett Smith. He organized at Winchester, Tennessee, in the spring of 1862, Company 1, 41st Tennessee Infantry. He was made its captain. Soon afterward he was made regimental surgeon and served in that capacity through the War. He was taken prisoner and held briefly at Ft. Donelson when he was discovered inside Federal lines. He was in civilian clothing, having removed his uniform to have it washed. He was given a pass by General Grant, who later discovered much to his chagrin, that he had given the pass to a Confederate officer.
15. Abraham Clopton, C.S.A., of Arkansas, son of John Clopton and his wife, Martha, of South Carolina. He enlisted December 1861 with the Weaver Light Battery. He was an Artificer. The modern definition of an artificer is a “military mechanic.”
16. Lieutenant Colonel Albert Gallatin Clopton, M.D., C.S.A., of Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, son of Alford Clopton, M.S., C.S.A., and his wife Sarah Kendrick. He was the husband of Anna M. Henderson. Texas, He was in the cavalry, Company D, Ragsdale’s Battalion, Company D, 1st Texas Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel; Texas Infantry, 3rd State Troops, Surgeon; and as General & Staff Surgeon.
17. Alford Clopton, M.D., C.S.A., of New Kent County, Virginia, son of David Clopton, Sr., and his wife, Mary Ann Vanderwall He is buried at Tuskegee Cemetery, Macon County, Alabama.
18. Alfred W. Clopton, C.S.A., Died of A Fever, of Richmond, Virginia, son of Edward A. Jackson Clopton, Esq., and his first wife, Dorothea C. Rodgers. He served from Virginia in the 4th Cavalry, Company I, E. He enlisted on March 1, 1862 in Company 1, 4th Virginia Cavalry, from March 1862 until March 1, 1863 and served as a private. He also served in Company E from March 1, 1863 until September 4, 1864. He was admitted to Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond on August 24, 1864 with a fever, he was sent home and there he died on September 9, 1864. Chimborazo Hospital was located on a hill near Richmond and was the Confederacy’s chief medical complex. It boasted 150 wards with a capacity for more than 8,000 patients. The single story pavilions served 76,000 patients during the War. Like most hospitals, they were themselves breeding grounds of disease.
19. (Lieutenant Commander) Anthony Clopton, Sr., C.S.A., of Tennessee, son of Benjamin Michaux Clopton, C.S.A. and his wife, Justine Augusta Haden. He was the husband of Margaret Sophronia Mayes, of Arkansas. In 1862 or '63, Mr. Clopton enlisted in the Confederate States Army with Company D, Davidson's (afterward Daly's and, finally, Ragsdale's) Battalion, Texas Cavalry. Records from that period give evidence he served in various capacities including: the Quartermaster's Office as clerk, Quartermaster Sergeant, and Wagon Master. The Quarter Master’s Department was dedicated to securing food and clothing for the troops. One of the great paradoxes of the War was that while attempting to totally annihilate each other, the two sides quickly realized they needed each other to survive. Bruce Catton opines the War would have ended “a year or two sooner if there had been no mutual trade with the enemy on either side.”
20. B. M. Clopton, C.S.A., son of Oliver Hazard Perry Clopton and his wife, Paulina L. Cobbs. He served in Company H. 12th Kentucky Cavalry; and, Company F, 1st Kentucky Infantry. Long considered the aristocratic arm of combat, the use of long rang infantry weapons during the Civil War reduced the cavalry to the important but unglamorous tasks of scouting and skirmishing. They formed screens around the army and could wreck havoc among opposing troops who sometimes ran unceremoniously away from the battleground. Although the Southerners were the superior horsemen, neither they nor the less finely tuned Yankees could confront a trained infantry firing modern weapons and stay in the saddle. As Bruce Catton notes: “To be romantic, you had to be on a horse.”
21. B. M. Clopton, C.S.A. He served in Company B., 13th Battalion Louisiana (Partisan Rangers). Music. During the American Civil War, military bands were, with few exceptions, composed entirely of brass and percussion instruments. Confederate army regulations stated that “When it is desired to have bands of music for regiments, there will be allowed for each, sixteen privates to act as musicians, in addition to the chief musicians authorized by law . . . [and furthermore] . . . the musicians of the band . . . will be instructed as soldiers and liable to serve in the ranks on any occasion.” Military bandsmen, in addition to playing for various military functions and to simply entertain the troops, were expected to serve as stretcher bearers and assisted in medical operations in field hospitals. They also helped transport and care for the wounded and buried the dead.
22. B. M. Clopton, C.S.A. He served from Virginia in Company A, 25th Infantry Battalion. They were recruited and supported in the Allegheny Highlands of Virginia. "That Splendid Regiment" as the 25th Virginia was known, fought at Rich Mountain, Greenbrier River, Allegheny Mountain, McDowell, Cross Keys, Port Republic, Cold Harbor, Malvern Hill, Cedar Run, Manassas No. 2, Chantilly, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, Fishers Hill, Cedar Creek, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Fort Steadman, Appomattox Courthouse.
23. Benjamin Franklin Clopton, Sr., U.S.A., of Dade County, Missouri, son of William Guy Clopton and his wife, Mary Hunt Bryant. He enlisted in the United States Army in 1862 and was discharged March 31, 1863.
24. Benjamin Michaux Clopton, C.S.A., of Davidson County, Texas, son of Anthony Clopton and his wife, Rhoda Hoggatt. He was the husband of Justine Augusta Haden, of Tennessee. He served in Company B, 10th Texas Infantry. The Texas Tenth Infantry Regiment was organized in the fall of 1861 and was captured at the Battle of Arkansas Post on January 11, 1863. The remaining men from the regiment were consolidated into the Army of Tennessee in July of 1863. It was under Patrick Cleburne that the regiment had the most impact which included the defense of Atlanta from Sherman's brutal march to the sea. They fought in the following battles: Devall's Bluff, Arkansas Post, Chickamauga, Chattanooga Siege, Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Atlanta Campaign, Resaca, Pickett's Mill, New Hope Church, Jonesboro, Franklin, Nashville, Carolinas Campaign, Bentonville. They surrendered with General Joseph Johnston and the Army of Tennessee on April 26 of 1865.
25. Benjamin Michaux Clopton, C.S.A., Prisoner of War, of Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, son of Walter Clopton, Jr. and his wife, Martha Ann Duffer. He was the husband of Mary Elizabeth McLin and Texanna Tennessee Lynn.
26. David Boyd Clopton, C.S.A., of Paulding County, Georgia, son of John M. Clopton, C.S.A., and his wife, Jane Tinsley. He served in Company H, 19th Georgia Infantry. Originally known as the Second Regiment, Fourth Brigade, Georgia State Troops, the Nineteenth Georgia Infantry mustered into Confederate service in August 1861. It fought at West Point, Seven Pines, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Frazier's Farm, and Malvern Hill. The regiment lost heavily at Cedar Mountain and Second Manassas, and the following month at Antietam it suffered casualties of more than 50%. After Chancellorsville the Nineteenth went to North Carolina and then to Charleston. It was sent to defend Florida against the Union advance in early 1864. In May of 1864 the well traveled regiment found itself back in Virginia, fighting at Drewry's Bluff and Cold Harbor, before defending Petersburg during the rest of 1864-1865. The Nineteenth was ordered to North Carolina near the close of the war, where it surrendered.
27. (Captain) David C. Clopton, C.S.A., of Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, son of Alford Clopton, M.S., C.S.A., and his wife Sarah Kendrick. He was the husband of Martha E. Ligon, Mary F. Chambers, and Virginia Caroline (Tunstall) Clay. He served in Company A, D, 1st Alabama Artillery Battalion, 2nd Alabama Infantry Regiment; and, in 12th Alabama Infantry, General and Staff Quarter Master’s Department. The 12th Alabama Regiment was organized at Richmond in July 1861, with members from Montgomery and Mobile, and Coffee, Coosa, De Kalb, Jackson, Macon, Morgan, and Pike counties. It fought in the Virginia area during the war. He is buried at Oakwood Cemetery, Montgomery County, Alabama.
28. Edward Andrew Jackson Clopton, Esq., C.S.A., of Richmond, Virginia, son of Edwin J. Clopton, Sr. Virginia, First State Reserves, Company D, Private.
76. Robert Emmett Clopton, Sr., C.S.A., of Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, son of Thomas B. Clopton, M.D., a veteran of the War of 1812, and his wife, Harriet B. Claiborne. He served in Company B, 11th Georgia Artillery Battalion (Sumpter Artillery); and, Company D, 11th Georgia Artillery Battalion (Sumpter Artillery). He was a private when he enlisted in 1862 at Americus, Georgia and was transferred to Company K, 8th Georgia Cavalry on December 29, 1864. He is buried at Concord United Methodist Church Cemetery, Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia. The unit was mustered into service at Richmond, Virginia on July 15, 1861. Company B: Greene County men-Stocks Volunteers. Most of this company was captured at Cumberland Gap and spent time in prison camp at Douglas, IL. Those not captured were mostly detailed as guards at Andersonville. Company D: Hall County men-Hall Volunteers. The men fought at Battle of 1st Manassas, Dranesville, Seven Days, Cedar Mountain and Second Manassas, Turner's Gap, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Petersburg.
119. Anthony Clopton Lane, C.S.A., of DeSoto County, Mississippi, son of Virginia Susanne Clopton, of “Mayfield,” and her husband, Frances Asbury Lane, of “Clover Bottoms Farm.” Tennessee, 7th Cavalry, Nathan Bedford Forest’s command. Wounded in action. The regiment was with Forrest in his defeat of Major General William Sooy Smith's forces near Okolona, Mississippi; the regiment accompanied General Forrest in his raid into West Kentucky, and on March 24 captured at Union City, Tennessee ; Battle of Tishomingo Creek, where Forrest defeated Major General S. D. Sturgis on June 10. On July 14, it was again with Forrest in the Battle of Harrisburg; the regiment was with Forrest in his raid into Middle Tennessee, beginning September 24 with the capture of Athens, Alabama; Under Chalmers, and later under Forrest, it formed part of the rear guard for Hood's Army December 18-28, 1864, then withdrew to North Mississippi with Forrest. On March 1, 1865, it was placed in Brigadier General A. W. Campbell's Brigade, Brigadier General W. H. Jackson's Division, then at West Point, Mississippi. It made contact with LaGrange's Brigade, Major General J. H. Wilson's Corps, U.S.A. near Tuscaloosa, Alabama, March 31, and again on April 1 at Scottsville, Alabama. These actions occurred during General Wilson's raid to Selma, Alabama, which resulted in the final surrender of Forrest's forces at Gainesville, Alabama, May 12, 1865, where the regiment was paroled.
Comments? Questions? Corrections?
 Those Who Served, The American Civil War, is an excerpt from The Ancestors and Descendants of Sir Thomas Clopton, Knight & Dame Katherine Mylde, and is the property of the Clopton Family Genealogical Society which holds the copyright on this material. Permission is granted to quote or reprint articles for noncommercial use provided credit is given to the CFGS and the authors. Prior written permission must be obtained in writing by the Society for commercial use.
John Henry Knowlton, Jr.,. is a member of The Clopton Family Genealogical Society & Clopton Family Archives and serves on the Society’s Editorial Advisory Board. The late Ottis Edwin Guinn, Sr., was a founding member of The Clopton Family Genealogical Society & Clopton Family Archives and served on the Society’s Editorial Advisory Board. Suellen (Clopton) DeLoach Blanton is Founder and Executive Director of The Clopton Family Genealogical Society & Clopton Family Archives.
 Mirror of War, The Washington Star Reports the Civil War, Compiled and Edited by John W. Stepp and I. William Hill, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961, p. 33. The beginning of the article in the Saturday, April 13, 1861 issue with the headline, “Conflict At Charleston. Immense Excitement.”
 Bruce Catton, Reflections on the Civil War, Edited by John Leekley, Promontory Press, New York, 1998, p. xix, quotes the late Catton’s remarks which he made on the “Lost Colony,” to the Roanoke Island Historical Commission, June 23, 1958.
 The Civil War Book of Lists, Compiled by the Editors of Combined Books, Combined Books, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, 1994, p. 90, 96. What is even more horrifying is that these figures are probably much higher than reported. So many records were lost that a truly accurate account is impossible. The number of those wounded, many seriously, has been the subject of many wild estimations.
 The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 1, Micropaedia, 15th Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1987, p. 327.
 Many people contributed information making it possible to compile this list. Special thanks to Martha Bennett, Fort Delaware Society; Bert Hampton Blanton, Jr.; Juleigh Clark, Public Services Librarian, and the staff of the John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Library of Colonial Williamsburg, Linda Carol (Wright) Clopton; Martha Alice (Bailey) Clopton; Peggy Charlotte (Schleucher) Clopton; John M. Coski, Historian, The Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia; Lillie Crowe, Assistant Director, Mary Vinson Memorial Library, 151 S. Jefferson Street, Milledgeville, Georgia; Barbara Donley, Virginiana Room Librarian, Fauquier County Public Library, Warrenton; Virginia Dun, Research Archivist, Virginia State Library and Archives; Hugh Harrington, Circulation Librarian, Russell Library, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, Georgia; Hattie Mina (Reid) Hickey; Sam Ferris Holmes, Jr.; Sam Hodges, Washington Correspondent, for The Mobile Press Register and The Mississippi Press, Newhouse News Service, Washington, D.C.; Virginia; James Penick Marshall, Jr., President, Eatonton-Putnam County Historical Society; Alice James & Charlotte Ray, Georgia Department of Archives and History; James I. “Bud” Robertson, Jr., Ph.D., Distinguished Professor of History at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and author of Stonewall Jackson: the Man, the Soldier, the Legend, which won the Douglas Southall Freeman Award and seven other national awards; Suzanne Hattaway (Saffold) Shockley; Darlene Slater, Research Assistant, Virginia Baptist Historical Society, University of Richmond, Virginia; Virginia Historical Society, Richmond; The Honorable Frank A. S. Wright, Judge, The Circuit Court of the City of Richmond; Leonard Alton Wood, M.S.; and, Vonnie S. Zullo, The Horse Soldier Research Service.
Thanks also to Clopton descendants Thaddeus Lamar Aycock, Dorothy Lee (Maddox) Bishop; John Harper Brake; Cecilia Clopton Brown; James Stanley Clopton, Michael Gregory Clopton; Wallace Chandler Clopton; William Purcell Clopton; Carl L. Cochrane; Ida (Brake) Crane; Jean (Holloman) Daniels; Katherine Elizabeth (DeLoach) Eubanks, B.S., R.N.; Carroll (Taylor) Everett; Lois Eulalia (Armstrong) Goocher; Lee Graham, Jr., M.Div.; Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes; Alonzo D. Hudson; Carole Elizabeth Scott, Ph.D.; Henry King Stanford, Ph.D.; Isabel Lancaster (Clopton) Steiner; Jack Hugh Thacker, M.B.A., Lt. Col., Rt.; Stella Hutoka (Richardson) Thomas; Miles George Turpin; William Edward Waters, III.; Patsy Ann (Clopton) Wheeler; and, Lorraine Dolores (Suda) Williams.
 The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 3, Micropaedia, 15th Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1987, p. 788.
 Mirror of War, p. 88-90. An article dated Saturday, February 15, 1862 places the number of Union troops at 50,000 men, “aided by the noble fleet of Commodore Foote.” Upon surrender on Tuesday, February 18, 1862, The Star claimed the Union suffered 400 deaths and 800 wounded.
 Robert E. Denney, Civil War Prisons & Escapes, Sterling Publishing company, Inc., New York, 1993, p. 10.
 See When All Is Said and Done
 Lenz, The Civil War In Georgia, Infinity Press, Watkinsville, Georgia, 1995, p. 22.
 Robert E. [on the Rappahannock River east of Fredericksburg], A Day-by-Day Chronicle, Gramercy Books, New York, 1998, p. 555.
 Lenz, The Civil War In Georgia, p. 7. Notes fighting all around and in Atlanta. The bloodiest battle of the Atlanta Campaign happened on July 22 with over 10,000 casualties.
 James I. “Budd” Robertson, Jr. and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Tenting Tonight, The Soldier’s Life, Time-Life Books, Chicago, 1984, p. 114-115.
 Memorial Records of Alabama in Two Volumes, Brant & Fuller, Madison, Wisconsin, 1893, Volume II, p. 1135.
 Robertson, Tenting Tonight, p. 97.
 For a look at the highly successful but short lived Clopton Hospital, see In Praise of Mint Juleps.
 See Jack of All Trades
 Catton, Reflections, p. 145.
 Catton, Reflections, pp. 130-132
 Army Regulations Adopted for the Use of the Army of the Confederate States, Bloomfield and Steel, New Orleans, 1861, p. 6.
 Robert Garofalo and Mark Elrod, A Pictorial History of Civil War Era Musical Instruments and Military Bands, Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., Missoula, Montana, 1985, p. 54-55.
 In 2001 a copy of the photograph was in the possession of Roger Allen Bartlett, Esq.
 Texas Confederate Soldiers & Widows Pension Application number 19168 was made by Texanna T. Clopton of Navarro.
 See Valor and Lace
 In 1999 a copy of his military records are in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 572.
 Texas Confederate Soldiers & Widows Pension Application number 45478 of Wilbarger was made by Mattie Clopton. Henry Harrison Clopton, of Wilbarger, number 33341, also made application.
 In 1999 a copy of his military records were in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 Texas Confederate Soldiers & Widows Pension Application number 33307 was made by Martha Ann Clopton of Bastrop. Hoggatt Clopton of Travis also made application n umber 10491.
 In 1999 a copy of his military records are in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 111
 Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 124
 Lenz, The Civil War In Georgia, p. 7. The battle raged from August 18 until the 22.
 Mirror of War, p. 110.
 Mirror of War, p. 113.
 Denney, Civil War Prisons, p. 40-42. The request to use the facility was made to the Governor of Illinois on December 25, 1861. On January 26, 1862, the facility was offered and accepted by the United States Government.
 Denney, Civil War Prisons, p. 121-122, quotes a lengthy letter written in November 1863, by an inmate discussing the cases of smallpox and the miserable treatment they received. The letter ends with the soldier’s comments: “All day and all night, day after day, night after night, the groans and prayers of the poor, suffering prisoners could be heard piteously begging for water or for some trivial attention from the cold-hearted nurses.” They were male nurses.
 Denney, Civil War Prisons, p. 381. Denney notes that the number of deaths said to be reported at each prison varies from report to report. It seems to be true, however, that records consistently indicate a higher percentage of Confederate prisoners died than Union prisoners while incarcerated, most of them in Illinois prisons.
 Robertson, Tenting Tonight, p. 111. Robertson notes that as part of this system, “enlisted men were to be exchanges one for one, as we officers of equal rank. Beyond that, there was a complex scale of values: Denney’s Civil War Prisons & Escapes, p. 375-376, prints The Prisoner Exchange Cartel of July 22, 1862. The officers could be exchanged for officers of equal rank. If there were no officers to exchange, the following rules applied: a general commanding-in-chief or admiral for forty privates or common seamen; certain commodores and brigadier-generals for twenty privates or common seamen; naval captains or colonels for fifteen privates or common seamen; lieutenant-colonel or a naval commander for ten privates or common seamen; lieutenant-commander or a major for eight privates or common seamen; lieutenant or a master in the navy or a captain in army or marines for four privates or common seamen; naval masters’ mates or army lieutenants and ensigns, four privates or common seamen; naval midshipmen, warren-officers, masters of merchant vessels, and commander of privateers, for three privates or common seamen; second captains, lieutenants, or mates of merchant vessels or privateers, and all petty officers in the navy and all noncommissioned officers in the army or marines, for two private or common seamen, and private soldiers or common seamen shall be exchanged for each other, m an for man.
 See All This Nonsense
 In 1999 a copy of his military records are in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 In 1999 a copy of his military records in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 See The Unfortunate Mattie Lee. A copy of his military records located Clopton Family Archives courtesy of Alonzo D. Hudson.
 Texas Confederate Soldiers & Widows Pension Application number 20576 was made by Mortimer L. Clopton of Harrison.
 Texas Confederate Soldiers & Widows Pension Application number 35945 was made by Willie E. Clopton of Montgomery. Reuben M. Clopton of Montgomery also made application number 11571.
 Dunbar Rowland, Military History of Mississippi, 1803-1898; company listing courtesy of H. Grady Howell’s For Dixie Land, I’ll Take My Stand.
 Robertson, Tenting Tonight, p. 118
 Copy located Clopton Family Archives courtesy of Darlene Slater, Research Assistant, Virginia Baptist Historical Society, Richmond, Virginia.
Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 237-238, places date of the engagement between patrols of the two armies as Thursday, December 4, 1862.
 The announcement of his marriage which appeared in the “Southern Churchman” on August 27, 1858, refers to him as “Major William D. Clopton.”
 See A Quilt of Many Colors
 In 1999 a copy of his military records are in the possession of Doris Charlotte (Kolb) Holmes.
 Edwin W. Beitzell, Point Lookout Prison Camp for Confederates
 Denney, Civil War Prisoners, p. 115.
 Denney, Civil War Prisoners, p. 119. Denney notes “There were probably 10,000 prisoners at Point Lookout who would have contested Hoffman’s concept of bountiful when it applied to their rations.”
 Located Copiah County, Mississippi Court House, courtesy of Talitha Edwina (Price) Snyder.
 Denney, Civil War Prisons, p. 201-205. See also, Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 419.
 See When All Is Said and Done
 See Extreme Misfortune
 See Fair Willie
 Denney, The Civil War Years, p. 406
 See A Tempest in the Briar Patch.. A copy of his military records are located Clopton Family Archives courtesy of Ottis Edwin Guinn, Sr. Mr. Guinn also has contributed to the Archives many letters exchanged during the War between Captain Saffold and his wife. James I. “Bud” Robertson, Jr., Ph.D., opines that letters from women to the men are to be found rarely because the men would carry the letters around in their uniforms, re-reading them so many times that they eventually disintegrated. Because Colonel Saffold spent the duration of the War in Georgia he was able to return home often and evidently left the letters at home so that they were preserved in good condition.
 A copy of the pardon is located Clopton family archives courtesy of Ottis Edwin Guinn, Sr.
 See Before the Batteries of the Enemy
 See A Fine Officer and A Gentleman