St Austell Parish page 2 St Austell History and her Parishes

St Blazey, Boscoppa, Caerhayes, Charlestown, St Dennis, St Ewe, Fowey, Golant, Goran and Goran Haven, Lanlivery, St Levan, Luxulyan, Mevagissey, St Mewan, Par, Pentewan, Roche, St Stephens in Brannel, St Mark-Sticker, Tregaminion, Treverbyn, Tywardreath, Withiel



Who were the Austills?

"Parochial History of Cornwall"
From this place came an old family of gentlemen surnamed
DeAustell one of whom was William. DeAustell, a sheriff of
Cornwall in the reign of Henry VI.

"North Carolina Register, Vol I, (page 635)", (published about 1920)
The Austells are of a Noble family of Cornwall, England.
The town (and parish) of St. Austell is a thriving village
(on the Bay of St. Austell) and the ruins of the Castle built
by William De Austell, Sheriff (of Cornwall) and Commoner under
Edward III (and Henry IV) are still standing.

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography
William de Austell, Sheriff of Cornwall under Edward III
and the builder of the ancestral castle now in ruins in
the town of St. Austell.



St. Austell and it's Parish Church Holy Trinity
from "The King's England"

We may wonder at the sight of something like a range of snowcapped peaks as we come to it on a summer's day, but here they are, apparently eternally, the work of a Quaker who turned St Austell upside down, changing its green valleys to white hills.

For centuries the neighbourhood has been famous for its tin, now it is famous for white clay. It was here that William Cookworthy found his first examples of the clay which was to give Cornwall a new industry. He found it here before he discovered the huge deposits at Carclaze mine, one of the sights of Cornwall two miles away. Open to the day, the great Carclaze mine has been quarried for tin from time immemorial. It must have been yielding tin when the Phoenicians came this way. It astonishes us by its immensity, a mile round and 150 feet deep, a match for the great slate quarry at Delabole. From it go pipes to Charlestown, the liquid clay running along them to be dried and shipped for the Potteries.

The moors are honeycombed with mines and quarries. There is a wishing well on the Bodmin Road, an old stone by the church where tradition says a witch was burned alive.

The fine church in the heart of this busy town stands among palm trees, rising from a lovely lawn. We see its tower from far away standing on a hillside among the trees. Five centuries old and 90 feet high to its battlements, it is one of the finest towers in Cornwall, with rich pinnacles, and grotesques on the walls looking as though they would leap down. On three sides of the tower are the Twelve Apostles and on the west wall are sculptured groups showing souls in Abraham's bosom, Gabriel bringing the good news to the Madonna, and figures of our Lord, a bishop, and a priest. The clock above all these has a 24-hour dial; centuries before the B.B.C. tried to make us count in twenty-fours this was a 24-hour clock, and is the only clock in Cornwall mentioned in an inventory of Tudor days.

The porch, with an upper room, a pelican over the doorway, and a stoup with a grotesque head, brings us into a spacious interior with three fine old black and white roofs with painted bosses, Norman stones in the chancel arcade, and glowing windows with 12 saints, 4 figures representing the virtues, and scenes of the Annunciation and the Nativity. One of the windows is interesting for having flowers and faces hidden in the cusps of its tracery.

The alabaster pulpit, new last century, has 34 figures carved on it, among them the Good Shepherd, Paul preaching, and the Sermon on the Mount. There is a little pulpit carved in one of the 20 old bench-ends fixed on the walls of the tower; it shows a fox preaching with one paw over the pulpit, the fox having his eye on a lady kneeling near by. We noticed on this old panelling a miner's spade and ladle, and a dragon's head.

Perhaps the rarest single possession of the church is its massive Norman font, the bowl carved with extraordinary creatures and resting on columns ending in human faces. Its magnificent cover is like a little dome-crowned temple with Mary and Joseph inside with St Anne and Simeon receiving the Child in the Temple. Round about are four guardian angels, one with a boy, one with a maid, one with a fish, and one with a pitcher, and the balancing weight is a golden dove. The setting of the font is very striking, the baptistry having panelled walls and an alabaster mosaic showing the Baptism in Jordan and mothers bringing their children to the Master. Above is a glowing Jesse window. A fine piece of work, the baptistry was given in memory of Elizabeth Shilson, who died in 1922, her husband hurrying on the work so that he might see it finished before he died. He lived just long enough to have his wish.

Four names we noticed here: Stephen Hugo, an 18th-century vicar for 62 years and Richard Hennah, vicar for 50 years till Waterloo; Samuel Drew who worked as a boy here for twopence a day, became a shoemaker, smuggler, and a Methodist preacher, and is remembered as a philosopher; and John William Colenso, the Bishop of the Zulus, who was born here in the year before Waterloo.


NEW!!! St Austell
A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, compiled from the best authorities and corrected and improved from actual survey, vol 1, Truro; William Lake, Boscawen Street; London; John Camden Hotten, Piccadilly. 1867
Given to me by Mr. Ron Lake of Barbary Cottage - Coastgurd Station - Polruan - Cornwall

Tywardreth

Hals.
St Austell is situate in the hundred of Powder, and hath upon the north Roach, east S. Blaze, west Mewan, south the British Channel: In Doomsday Roll, 1087, the modern name of this parish was not extant, but the same and the districts of S. Blazey, Mewan, and Menagissey, passed then in tax under the jurisdiction of Earl Cradock's manor of Towington, now duchy, Treverbyn, Trenace, and Pentewan. Note further, that if St Austell be a corruption of Sancto Hostel, it signifies the holy inn or court.

The Prior of Tywardreth, with divers other benefactors, as appears from the craving and inscriptions on the stones thereof, founded and endowed this church, within the town of Trenance, now S Austell town, after which it was indifferently written Trenance Prior, that is to say, the valley town prior (or pertainingto him) and again by him Trenance Austell (i.e. the cell, chapel, or hole, valley town); and again, Tre-ance Aus-tell (i.e. the valley town out, or remote cell or chapel) so called in respect of Tywardreth, its superior or mother church. The patronage now in the King; the incumbent Tremayne; the rectory or sheaf in May. In the Bishop of Lincoln and Winchester's Inquistion into the Pope's value of Benefices in Cornwall, 12 94, Ecclesia de Sancto Austello in Decanatu de Powdre, was rated to first-fruits x.l.xii.s.iiii.d. The Vicar xl.s. In Wolsey's Inquisition. 1521, lb 21. This parish was charged to the 4s. per pound landtax, 1696, 6.0.

From this place was demominated an old family of gentlemen surnamed De Austell, of which family William de Austell was sheriff of Cornwall 25 Henry vI as also Somerset and Dorset 27 and 28 of name, blood, and estate of those gentlemen are terminated, I know not, or wher they dwelt. At the town of S Austell, alias Trenance, is weekly held upon Friday a considerable market, wherein is vended all commoditions neccssary for the life of man at a reasonable price. Its also privileged 10th fairs or greater marts, on the 30th of November, Palm Sunday, and Thursday after Whit-Sunday, which benetywaaardreth asforesaidfits were doubtless firt obtained from the Earls of Cornwall by the Priors of Tywsrdreth aforesaid.

Treverbyn, alias Tre-verbin, in this parish, was the voke lands of a considerable manor, long before the Norman Conquest, as appears from the Doomsday tax aforesaid (it signifies in Cornish the herb, rape, root, or navew town, famous it seems in former ages for those vegetables) from which place was denominated that old and knightly familly of Treverbins (who had their free chapel and burying place here lately extant, and of public use before the church of S Austell was erected; of which house was Walter Treverbyn, sheriff of Cornwall 1223, the successor of Reginald de Valletort 7 Henry III, who had issue Sir Walter Treverbyn, Knight, who had a daughter married, naed Katherine to Peter Prideaux, of Bosconnock, or Haccomb in Devon, and Trevannion of Caryhays, in whom the name, blood, and estate of those Treverbins ended. But Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exon, and Earl of Devon, forfeited onemoiety of those lands to the crown br attainder of treason against that butcher of the branches of the house of York, Henry VIII ; so that the same is now in copartery between the King of England and Trevannion.

Penrice, alias Penric, in this parish, (i.e. head jurisdiction or dominion) perhaps heretofore, if not now, the voke lands of some manor (otherwise it must be interpreted the head or chief topping of trees, or rice, faggots) is the dwilling of my very kind friend Joseph Sawle, Esq. that married Trevanion, his father Glanville, his grandfather Rashleigh, a gentleman notably famous for his humanity, hospitality, and charity to the poor, who giveth for his arms, Argent, a chevron between three falcons' heads sable. Origanally the first ancestor of this family came out of Normandy, a soldier under William the Conqueror, 1066, and in all probability he was posted in those parts, an officer under William or Robert Earls of Morton and Cornwall, sometime after in those standinf troops of soldiers the Cnqueror kept here, in order to awe the people thereof to a submission to his dominion.

For I take it beyond the records of time at Towan in this parish, and elsewhere in Devon, this family or tribe hath been extant in famo and splendour as the desendants of that Sanley or Sawle, mentioned in Battle Abbey Roll, in the year abovementioned

Mena-Gwins, in this parish, i.e. white hills or hills white, is the dwelling of Francis Scobell, Esq., (in English broom) that married one of the coheirs of Sir Joseph Tredenham, Knight, his father Carlyon's heir, and giveth for his arms, as I take it, the same as the Scobhills of Devon, viz, Argent, three flours-de-lis, two and one, guies; perhaps originally decended from that family.

Bos-cundle, i.e. bundle of rushes,in this parish, is the dwelling of Charles Trubody,gent

Trenaran, i.e. the still lake, leat, creek, cove or bosom of waters; in this parish, is the dwelling of Samuel Hext, gent. attorney-at-law, who by his skill and conduct in that professon, hath advanced his reputation and estate to a considerablempitch in those parts; he married Moyle of this place.

Merther in S. Austell, bordering on the sea, joining to the Parr, was formerly the seat of the Laas, but now the lands of Hext, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth came from kingston in Stuerton, Devonshire, an ancient seat of that family. His coat is or, a castle triple-turcetted, between three battle axes sable. At the time of the unhappy rebellion, whenthe Lord Hopton had disbanded his army, some of Fairfax's forces entered the house of Merther, threatening to murder Mrs. Laamand the family, for being too dilatory in dressing neat for them. Mr Laa then riding about his estate, had intimation that the rebels were in his parlour, carousing at the expense of his bacon, poultry, and strong beer. He with all possiable expedition slighted at the door, enters the kitchen, which is opposite to the parlour, and being warmed with an honest zeal for his king took down a loaded gun from the chimney piece, and shot up one of the rebels, who was at the head of the table, dead on the spot. Immediately he took horse, and rode towards the Parr, and preserved his life from the vile pursuers, being providentially well mounted, by leaping a five-barred gate, and swimming across the Parr, it being at that time high water.

In the town of S. Austell liveth Henry Hawkins, Gent. attorney at law, younger brother of Mr. Hawkins of Creed, who by his judgement, skill, care, and pains in his callings hath exalted his famo and estate to a great degree. He married Scobell, and giveth for his arms, argent, on a saltire sable, five fleurs-de-lis. His two sons by Scobell died without issue, and his daughters were married to Hoblyn, Moyle, Hext, and Hawkins of Helston; and the youngest of that sex, with all his land and riches, was married to Tremayne of S Ewe, Esqr.

The manor of Tow-ing-ton, alias Taw-ing-ton aforesaid, taxed in the Domesday Book, 1087, is invested with the jurisdiction of a court leet; and signifies 'silence in town' or 'extraordinary silence in town,' viz. when the court sitteth; which was afterwards by King Edward III. 1336, concerted or fixeed into the Duchy of Cornwall, by charter, with its appurtenances.

In this parish was born Jonathan Upcott, son of George Upcott, Gent. by Mrs. May, of High Cross ranger of the parks to John, Lord Robartes in Cornwall, as also in Ireland, when he was Lord Deputy there. This gentleman, having risen through various steps in the army, during the reigus of Charles II. James II. and William III. commanded a company in Flanders in the great war against France under Lewis XIV. At last, being ordered to take part in a desperate assault on the French at Enghcin where the Dutch and Spanish soldiers had proved better men at their heels than at their hands, he bravely lost his life, together with the greater part of his men.

Tonkin

The manor of Tewynton, alias Tewington, takes its name from the chief place Towan, which, though it generally means 'heaps of sand,' cannot be so interpreted here; and much less applicable is the etymology given by Mr. Hals of 'silence in town,' but Towan means a hillock generally, so that Tewynton means, in the mixed derivation common in Cornwall from British and Saxon, 'the town on a small hill.' This place was the seat of the Sawles before the removed to Penrice, and affords a quarry of excellent stone.

Pentewan, the 'head of the hillocks of sand.' Lower Pentewan is situated at the mouth of the St. Austell river, which would form a preety little port, were it not for the bar of sand made by the waste brought down from the tin works, so that small craft only can get in, and that at spring tides. It is a Handsome village, and in good seasons great stores of fish are brought here.

Pelniddon, 'the top of the ford,' from 'nyd,' a ford, was the seat of the knightly family bearinf the same name.

Trenorren, which I take to be compounded of Tre-nore-en, 'the town of the point,' from the Black Head, close by which it lies.

Monuments in the Church
This monuments was rated by Mary, ye widow of John Sawle, late of Penrice, Esq., in memory of her departed husband, who dyed 2nd January 1715, aged 50 years. And likewise of Trevanion Sawle, their son, who dyed 23 January, 1714.

In memory of Mary Sawle, daughter of Joseph Sawle, late of Penrise, Esq., who departed this life on the 18th September, 1803;aged 76 years. Likewise in memory of Elizabeth Graves, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Sawle, late of Barley House, in the county of Devon, Esq., and widow of the late Admiral John Graves,who died on the 4th day of March, 1819; aged 71 years. This monument is erected by Joseph Sawle[Sawle, Esq., as a tribute of resect to his cousin and mother.

Departed this life, May the 6th, 1811, John Graves, Esq., Rear Admiral, Royal Navy, aged 68; second son of the Rev. John Graves, of Gravesend, in the county of Derry, Ireland, who married Elizabeth, youngesst daughter of Richard Sawle, Esq., of Barley house, in the parish of S. Thomas-the-Apostle, in the county of Devon, by Bridjet Vyvyan, daughter of Sir Richard Vyvyan, bart. of Trelowarren, in the county of Cornwall, whose four children, by the said Elizabeth his wife, lie entombd in the family vault Vyvyan Grves, Mary Sawle Graves, and a daughter unnamed. To the memory of her dear husband this monument is erected by his afficted widow, and only surviving son, Joseph Sawle Graves, Esq., lineal descendant, and heir to the late John Sawle, Esq., of penrice house, in the county of Cornwall.

Religious, just, and, brave,--Feared only God,
Death struck the blow,--resigned he kissed the rod.
Honour and honesty in life adorn'd,
Merit he noticed--Knavery he scorn'd,
To humble worth a friend; --to regues a thorn.

This monument is erected by Sir Joseph Sawle Graves Sawle, bart.,to the memory of Dorothen Prideaux, his beloved wife, eldest daughter of the Rev. Charles Prideaux Brune, of Prideaux Place, in this county, who died on the 23rd day of October, 1853; aged 64. Likewise to Erasmus Henry, their beloved grandson, and son of Thomas Graves Sawle,Esq., and Juliana, his wife, second daughter of the Revd. Sir Erasmus H. Griffics-Williams, baronct, of Llywyny-Wormwood, Carmarthenshire, who departed this life on the 15th of January, 1859; aged 8 years

Sacred to the memory of Caroline Handley, wife of John Way, M.B., who died in this town Febuary 4th, 1859; aged 35 years. Also of Arthur John Brown, son of John and Caroline Handley Way, who died March 4th, 1859, aged one month.

To the memory of the Rev. Richard Hennah, A.M., who died the 13th of April, 1815; aged 82 years. After being above half a century minister of this parish. And of Mary Hennah, his wife, who died the 28th November, 1811; aged 68 years. This tablet is erected as a mark of filial and affectionate regard, by their surviving children.

Sacred to the memory of John Wheeler of this parish, who died the 3rd Novr. 1837; aged 71 years. Also to Jenefer, his wife, who died the 6th of May, 1858; aged 89 years. This tablet is erected as a tribute of affection by their three surviving children.

Sacred to the memory of Frances, the beloved wife of the Revd. Thomas Scott Smyth, who departd this life April 22nd, 1820; aged 30. Her remains lie interred in this churchyard.

Mild, duteous, tender, artless, yet refined,
With matchless temper blest, and pious mind;
While yet with yuthful look her beauty bloomed,
A fever's sudden fires her life consumed;
And who unnmoved could see the gentle friend,
Tho wife, the mother, to the grave descend?
With man a sigh was mourned her early bier,
And long regrets her memory shall endear,
Fast fell the tears before this verse could flow,
Which faintly speaks a brother's love and woe;
But one there is, who met far heavier pain,
To watch, to weepp, to pray, to love in vain;
His trail, firm and faithful to adore
His heavenly Master's will, and ask no more.
William Smyth.

Also, of the Rev. Thomas Scott Smyth, late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford; Prebendary of Excter Cathedral, and Vicar of the parishes of St Austell and St Blazey, from 1815 to 1838; who died at Clifton, November 14, 1854; aged 77. Beloved and lumented by all who knew him. Rev. xiv. 13

Sacred to the memory of Georgiana-Theophila, relict of the Rev. Thomas Scott Smyth, and daughter of Sir Theophilus Metcalfe, bart., of Fernhill, Berks, who for 14 years laboured unceasingly amoung the poor of this parish, died at Clifton on the 5th of February, 1864; aged 72. In thee, O Lord, have I put my trust. Ps. xxxi. 1.

To the memory of Samuel Drew, a native of this parish, whose talents as a metaphysical writer, unaided by education, raised him from obscurity into honourable notice, and whose virtues as a Christian won the esteem and affection of all who know him. he was born March 3rd, 1765; lived in St Austell until January, 1819; and after an absence of fourteen years, during which he conducted a Literacy Journal, he returne to end his days in his native county, as he had lng desired, and died at Helston, March 29th, 1833. To record their sense of his literary merit and moral worth, his fellow townsmen and parishioners have erected this tablet.

Sacred to the memory of Charles Geach, M.P., son of George and Grace Geach, of Saint Austell, who died at Westminster 1st November, 1854'; aged 46 years; and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery. His short life was marked by great commerial enterprise and untiring energy. His name is associated with most of the public undertakings of his time. He was elected Cheif Magistrate of Birmingham in the year 1847, and Member of Parliament for the city of Coventry in the year 1851. He was earnest in friendship and benevolence to all. 'Bessed are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy.' This tablet is erected in the Church of his birthplace by his affectionate brothers and sisters.

Near this place lie the remains of Joseph Sawle, Esq., who died May 22nd, 1787, aged 63. Of Agnes his wife, who died June 20th, 1769, aged 80. And of their son John Sawle, Esq., who died March 2nd, 1783, aged 59. Mary Sawle, the only surviving person of the family, erects this monument to the memory of her parents, and her brother.

Near this place, at his particular request, lie the remains of Thomas Jones, Esq. Having past the early part of his life in St. Austell , in the practice of the Law; he retired to Trinity, where, on the 7th of July 1775, in the 65th year of his age, he died as he had lived, universally revered and respected.

Sacred to the memory of Mr. Richard Elliot, of Polmear, who died October the 15, 1774. And also of Gertrude, his widow, who died Dec. 28, 1789, aged 92 years. She was a sister of the late Ralph Allen, of PriorbPark, in the county of Somerset, Esq. Elizabeth, their daughter, was married to Thoms Daniel, of Truro, Esq.

St Austell

The parish of S. Austell is in the deanery and eastern division of the hundred of Powder; it is bounded on the north by the pashes of Roche and Luxulyan; on the east by S Blazey, and Par harbour, in Tywardreath; on the south by the English channel and Mevagissey; on the west by the 44a. of pasture land; 92a. of gardens and orchards; ; 278a. 3r. of woodland; 1582a of common land; 1539a. 3r. of furze and heath; and 2a. 2r. 29p of gllebe. The impropriation of the rectorial tithes was orginally distributed in the Tithe appointment book, as follows;

To John Hearle Tremayne, Es. on 1763 acres...lb 190.4.1 To John Hearle Tremayne, Es. and Miss Martha Rashleigh, on 4031 acres....lb122.9.2 To Miss Martha Rashleigh on 2248 acres....lb153.4.1 To William Carlyon, Esq., and Miss Martha Rashleigh on 636 acres...lb36.2.8. The Vicarial tithes, including the tithe of hay, and the sum of 10s. on the Glebe when let to a tenant, amounts to lb 538, making the gross amount of tithes lb1040.

Miss Rashleigh, died in 1847, and bequeatheed her portion of the rectorial tithes to her relative, John Tremayne, Esq. son of John hearle Tremayne, Esq., above namd; and they are now held by that gentleman and Thomas Tristrem Spry Carlyon, Esq., of Tregrehan.

The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Crown, and the present vicar, the Rev. Fortescue Todd, was admitted Oct 4, 1838. Previous vicars were admitted - in 1675, Thomas; in 1696, Stephen Hugo; in 1758, Hart; in 1775, Richard Hennah; and in 1815, Thomas Scott Smyth.

The Rev. Joseph May held this living in conjunction with that of S. Neot, (the two valued at lb 200 per year,) in the days of Cromwell, when he was ejected from both benefices. He was succeeded in one of the livings by one Bond; but the plaque happening to come into the parish some time after, Bond fled, and got into the parish of Mawgan in Mencage, another sequestered living; upon this May re-assumes the care of his parish, and continued to discharge all the duties of it, throughout the whole time of the sickness, during which the plaque came not nigh his dwelling so as to enter; for though it raged all around, yet not one of his family had it. As soon as the sickness was over, Mr may was again turned out; but whether by Bond or by Mr Machin is not known. Mr May published a sermon called "Epaphras:.

Near the western entrance to the church, and in the central part of the town, where the principal streets meet, there is a large flat stonemin the midst of the pavement, known by the name of Menagew, or Mengu stone. It is of dark appearance and probably of that kind of Cornish stone called Catacleuse. The origin of this stone is uncertain, and is said to occupy a position where three manors meet, namely, Trenance-Austell, Towington, and Treverbyn-Courtenay. It also defines the boundaries of some lands. The early history of this stone is enveloped in the clouds of superstition; and on it, according to tradition, a woman was burnt alive, because she was reputed to be a witch. It is certain that on this stone all declarations of war and proclamations of peace were formerly read; and although at present it is partially disgarded, a strong degree of veneration still attached to ot's name. From its connexion with the ancient manors, all cattle that had been impounded for a given time, and for which no owner could be foud, were brought to this stone, and exposed for a certain number of market days; after which, if they remained unclaimed, their sale became legal.

Among the phenomena which this parish furnishe, one remarkable instance is the appearance of a light, , near the turnpike road at Hill Head, about three quarters of a mile west of the town. In the summer season it is rerely seen, but in the winter, particularly in the months of November and December, scarcely a night passes, when it is dark weather, in which it is not visible. It appears of a yellow hue, and scems to resemble a small embodied flame It is generally stationary, and when it does move, it resemble a small embodied flame. It is generally stationary, and when it does move, it wanders but very little from it's primitive position, sometimes mounting upwards, and then again descending to the earth. As it has frequented this place from time immemorial, it is now become so familiar that it almost ceases to excite attention. A large iron lode traverses the locality, and is reasonably supposed to be the cause of it.

At a solitary spot on the estate of Tregangeeves, the Quarkers have a bury-ing ground. It was originally granted by Mr Thomas Lower, a physician, of London, to whom this esate at that time belonged. This gentleman, coming into Cornwall, went, most probably from motives of curiosity, to visit George Fox, who was then confined in Launecston gaol.Being forcibly struck with his conversation, he became a convert, and immediately gave to the people, with whom he thenceforward associated, a portion of ground for the above purpose, for the term of a thousand years, they yielding and paying the yearly rent of one pepper-corn, in case the same should be demanded. This burial-ground is about three quarters of a mile west of S. Austell town, adjoining the principal road leadinf from thence to Truro.

The church comprises a chancel, nave, and north and south aisles, a south porch, a priest's door, and a good tower arch. The chancel, with the north and south aisles so far as the chancel extends, are much older than the other part of the church. The south arcade of this part comprises two low segmental arches, supported by one roound pier, built up of small blocks of Pentewan stone, and towards the church by a piece of dead wall. The north arcade has also two arches, but they stand much higher, and are almost equilateral; they are supported by a square pier, somewhat ornamented, with a similiar piece of dead wall towards the church. Possibly those remnants of dead wall once supported a small tower, or steeple. The south aisle of the chancel part is evidently much older than the north aisle. The windows of this part of the church are chiefiy early English. There is a multifoil in the south gable. The window beneath this multifoil is filled with painted glass, on the lower part of which is this inscription; ----In memory of Edward Coode, of Saint Austell, clerk of the peace and county treasurer of Cornwall; died April 27, 1845. Also, of Dorothy, his wife; died April 1, 1848. Also, of Edward Coode, their son, of Moor Cottage, also clerk of the peace and county treasurer of Cornwall; died Feb.13, 1865.

The other part of the church, including the tower, is handsomely built of ashler work, of Pentewan stone. The arcades each comprise five semi-circular arches, supported by slender pillars of the same material. The font font, also of Pentewan stone, is supported by a central shaft and four small pillars; the bowl is round, and ornamented with groteque heeds and figures. This part of the church is lighted by eleven large and lofty windows. Externally there are buttresses between every window- those on the south side terminating in crocketted pinnacles, while those on the north side are curiously finished with grotesque gurgoyles. The walls, on which are carved shields bearing representations of the symbols of the crucifixion, tinners' tool, &c., are finished with enriched cornices and battlements. The rood stairs are in the north wall, of octagonal shape, and also finished with battlement. There is a correspondind turret on the south side. The porch, which has a parvise chamber, has also buttresses, with crocketted pinnacles, and battlements.Over the entrance, in the front of the porch, is a pelican and the inscription, KYCH INRI, which has never been satisfactorily explained. The tower is of three stages. The second stage contains eighteen statues, in richly sculptured niches, six on the west side and four on each of the others. The largest and most elevated of those on the centre of the west side, represents the Deity, holding between His knees the crucified Saviour. Below are Joseph and Mary, and two others, with a lily-pot between them. The other twelve are supposed to represent the Apostles. The third stage is ornamented with gothic tracery, and here the buttresses of the tower, eight in number, terminate in crocketteed pinnacles; here, at the corners, octagonal turrets, also enriched with gothic tracery commence, from the embattled terminations of which spring the lofty crocketted pinnacles of the tower. The tower has a good western doorway, which is also used as an entrance to the church; there are eight bells and a clock. On some of the craved work of the ancient seats, with which a vestry has been formed are the arms of Archdeckne and Albalanda.

The church of S. Austell was given to the prior and convent of Tywardreath, by Robeert Fitzwilliam. In or about the year 1291, Philip Cornwallis, Archdeacon of Winchester, gave the church of S. Clether for the endowment of a chantry chapel, in the church-yard of S. Austell. There was a sanctuary at St Austell, which Robert Fitzwilliam, by his deed bearing date 1169, discharged of a payment to which it had been subject. At Menacuddle is the site of an ancient free chapel, which was subject to the priory of Tywardreath; the last incumbent of which had a pension of 5 lb. per annum allowed him, in the reign of Edward V.J. The lands belonging to this chapel, amounting to 71a. 2r., 38p., are tithe free, and were granted by that king to Sir Thomas Pomeroy and Hugh Pomeroy. They are now the property of Sir C.B. Graves-Sawle, bart. Under the hill upon the same estate, is the chapel well, over which is a gothic building nine feet long and six feet five inchs wide, within the walls. It is built of stone, and the roof, which is groined, is formed of the same material. It has two doorways, facing due north and south, and the large stones which compose them are moulded. The doorways have pointed arches, and there is a small window to the west. The water of the well was supposeed to be medicinal. At Towan there is also a baptismal well, over which is an ancient building, and, like the one above described, is in the early English style of architecture, covered with an arched root granite. There was also a chapel, dedicated to S Mary, at Molingey, and another at Treverbin-Courtenay.

The Charlestown ecclesiastical district was formed in 1846, and the Revv. Clobery S. Woolcock was admitted perpetual curate, Dec 16th, that same year. The church, with a preparation for a steeple, was built in 1851, and there is a burial ground. The district includes 1,500 acres, the stipend is 150 lb, and the presentation in the Crown and the Bishop alternately. The present incumbent is the Rev. George Lambe, admitted in 1861.

The Treverbyn district was formed ws formed in 1847, when, Jan 27, the Rev. Thomas J.Bennetts, the present incumbent, was admitted perpetual curate. It comprises an area of 6,000 acres, and the stipend 160 lb.. The patronage in the Crown and the Bishop alternately.

The church was built in 1850, and there is a ccemetery attached. The parsonage has been built more recently.

The Wesleyan Methodists have a large and commodious chapel in the town of S. Austell. The principal front is built of ashler-work, of Pentewan stone, sumounted with a pediment of Portland stone, of which matrial the handsome portico is also constructed. There is tasteful entrance through a well kept shrubbery. Marble tablets bear the following epitaphs; -

Under the ministry of Dr. Adam Clarke, in 1785, Samuel Drew, A.M., joined the Methodist society at St. Austell. Endowed with powerful intellect he maintained for more than forty years, both from the pulpit and the press, the truth of vital religion; proved by his life its hallowing influence, and died March 29th, 1833, in the full assurance of faith. His father, Joseph Drew, died in 1814, having been 65 years a Methodist

In memory of Richard Glanville, the original lessee of these premises, who departed this life Feb. 9, 1834; aged 72 years. And of George Michael, the architect of this chapel, who died March the 24th, 1841; aged 76 years. Both of whom were converted to God in early life, under the ministrics of the Rev. Francis Wrigley and Dr. Adam Clarke, and for more than half a century maintained their christian course. The first was a faithful class-leader and steward, the latter a zealous preacher of the gospel and leader. They both closed their useful lives in peace, and in sure and certain hope of a glorious resurrection. This tablet is erected by their christian friends as a testimony of respect, to record their piety and devotedness to the service of God.

O God, we consccrate this place, An offering to our Saviour's grace, And pray thy blessings may descend, Within its walls, till time shall end.

This marble is designed to record the revered memory of Isabella, wife of the Rev. Richard Ray, Wesleyan minister, who, having uniformly adorned the gospel of God, her Saviour, by a life equally devotd and exemplary, was summoned to her reward, September the 6th, 1837, in the 40th year of her age.

Sacared to the memory of the Rev. Thomas Rogers, Wesleyean minister, who died July 9th, 1864. For more than fifty years he laboured as a faithful minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, with zeal, ability, and sucess. His superior intelligence and sound judgement secured the respect of all who knew him, and his cheerful, loving spirit, especially endeared him to the members of his numerous family. Full of days, rich in faith and love, he finished his earthly course, and entered into his heavenly rest in the 80th year of his age.

There are also places of worship for the Society of Friends, Baptists, and Bible Christians, in the town.

The town of S. Austell is pleasently situated in a well-cultivated district, on the south side of a hill, which falls gradually to the little river Vinnick. It has a good market house, town hall, and almost every conveniency required for one of the best market towns in the county. Since the opening of the Cornwall Railway, which has a station here, numerous handsome villas have been built in and about the town. The union workhousefor the S. Austell union is here. The market, which is held on Friday, was granted in 1661 to Oliver Sawle and Henry Carlyon, Esquires, in the trust for the poor of S. Austell, together with two fairs, on S. Andrew's day and the Thursday in Whitsun-week. There are now three other fairs, namely: March 29th, July 26th, and October 19th. In the reign of Henry VIII S. Austell was described as a poor village. It first rose to importance from its vicinity to Polgooth, one of the oldest tin mines in the country, and from the traffic arising from numerous tin streams, both in the parish and in the locality. There are several villages in the parish, the principal of which is Charlestown, Holmsbush, Mount Charles, Wreasting Ring, Carvath, Tregonissey, Pentewan, Porthpean, Carbean, Roscorla, Tregorrick, Trenarren, Trethurgy, and Carnsmerry.

Penrice, the seat of Sir Charles Brune Graves-Sawle, bart., is pleasantly situated among some good pasture lands and a deerpark, about twoo miles from S. Austell. The mansion consists of a centre and two wings, and comprises a suite of fine apartments. Among the paintings are many good family portraits. The Sawles removed to this place from the ancient seat at Towan, in the same locality.

Trewiddle, the property and formerly the residence of Francis Polkinghorne, Esq., Has been in the possession of Thomas Graves-Sawle, Esq., but is now unoccupied.

Trevarrick, a neat modern seat, is the property and residence of Robert Gould Lakes, Esq., one of the County magistrates.

Edward Coode, Esq., is the proprietor and occupier of the family mansion of the Coodes, in St Austell town. He is also one of the County magistrates.

Pondhu is the property and handsome residence of Thomas Coode.Esq.

Moor Cottage, the property and residence of the late Edward Coode, Esq., is now occupied by the Rev. George Lambe, incumbent of Charlestown.

Polcarne, a beautiful villa residence, is the property and in the ocupation of John Coode, Esq., County treasurer. Trevarnon is the residence of William Coode, Esq.

Menaguins, the ancient scat of the Scobells, is now the property of the Carlyons, of Tregrehan. In one of the rooms of the old mansion was a handsomely sculptured chimney piece. Over the entrance were the letters and date R.B.S., 1675.

Boscundle, formerly the scat of the Trewbodys, belongs to T.T.S.Carlyon, Esq., of Tregrehan, as representative of the Trowbody family.

Duporth, a handsome marine residence, was built by the late Charles Rashleigh, Esq., who resided in it to the time of his death. Since, it has been occupied by Dr. Pattison, and is now the property and residence of George Freeth, Esq.

Trenarren has an eastrrn aspect and opens towards the sea. It formerly belonged to a manor of the same name, which was given by Robert de Cardinham to the priory of Tywardreath, temp. Richard I., and has since been divided. Trenarren now belongs to Thomas Hext, Esq., who resides in the family mansion there.

Trevissick was formerly the seat of a younger branch f the Moyles, of bake, in S. Germans. Over the gateway were the arms of Moyle, with the letters and date R. M.E. 1631. It then became the property of Sinion Slade, gent., who took down a great part of the ancient buildings.

On Gwallon down, a little to the cast of S. Austell town, there were formerly several ancient barrows. In opening one of those, May 29, 1805, it was found to contain a sepulchral urn, the internal diameter of which was nine inches,and at the mouth six inches and a quarter. In 1774, a silver cup, or goblet, containing Anglo-Saxon coins, was dug up on the estate of Twewiddle.

Charlestown, situated in the north-west corner of S. Austell bay, about two miles from the town, was formerly called West Polmear, or Porthmear, to distinguish it from East Polmear, in Tywardreath. It was so named after it's patron, Charles Rashleigh, Esq. In 1790 the village contained only nine persons. The pier was begun in 1791, for the security of fishing boats. It was enlarged the following year. Immediately after this date a basin was cut out of solid rock, to supply which with water an expensive and tortuous watercourse was cut to the river Par, in Luxulyan. From this time its rise was rapid. It soon had a good hotel, shipwright's yard, a rop manufactory, and several pilchard seems established, and the basin was enlarged sufficiently to receive vessals of more than two hundred tons.On the cliff on the south side of the harbour, a battery was erected. Charlestown has now a large respectable population, a church, aa Wesleyan chapel, an iron foundry, and a smelting house for tin. Large quantities of china clay and stone, and copper ores are shipped; and coals, timber, iron, and groceries, imported. Another harbour has since been constructed at Pentowan, about four miles to the south of S. Austell town, with which rhere is a rail or tramway communication. Coals,&c., are imported for the use of the mines, and china clay and china stone for thepotteries, and for the use of linen-bleachers, are exported. At Polruddon, adjoining is the celebrated quarry of the free stone, commonly called Pentewan stone. This stone has been used for many centuries in the ecclesiastical buildings of the county, and is remarkable for its great durability. Both Pentewan and Polrudden are the property of C.H.H.Hawkins, Esq.

Norden descibees Polruddon as the ruins of an ancient home, sometime the house of John Polruddon, who was taken out of his bed by the French, temp. HenryVII, and carried away with violence, and then began the house to decay; and Penwarne, the house of Mr Otwell Hill, was built of Polruddon stones. The house was afterwards rebuilt and became a scat of the Scobells, from whom, in the female line, it descended to the present proprietor.

The manor of S Austell, or S Austell-Prior, belonged to the prior and convent of Tywardreath. Upon the dissolution of religious houses, it was annexed with other manors, in 1540, to the duchy of Cornwall, in lieu of the honour of Wallingford. In the seventeenth century it was sold to Edmund Bourne, but at the Restoration was restored to the duchy. Charles Rashleigh, Esq., purchased it under the Land-Tax Redemption Act, in 1799. It is now the property of William Rashleigh, Esq., of Menabilly.

The duchy manor of Towington, which extends into the parishes of S Blazey and Roche, and formerly gave name to a hundred, was purchased also under the Land-Tax Redemption Act, (except certain lands and tenements, parcel of the said manor, previously purchased under the said Act by Thomas Carlyon, Esq., and others) by Charles Rashleigh, esq. The lands in this manor are held by two descriptions of persons, called free tents, and conventionary, or customary tenants; the free tenants hold lands of inheritance, subject to a high rent payable to the manr; the others hold by copy of court-roll, from seven to seven years, under a small reserved rent, and suit and service at court; the widow has a life-estate in these tenements, which descend to the eldest son, and in default of male issue, to the eldest daughter. This manor is now the property of Sir C.B. Graves-Sawle,bart., and T.T.S.Carlyon, Esq.

The manor of Trenannce-Austell belonged, temp. Edward III., to the family of Hiwis of Devon, whose co-heiress brought most of their Cornish estates to the Coleshills: afterwards, it was for several generations in the family of Chywarton. In 1634, it was the joint property of Ezekiel Arundell, and Thomas Trewan, Esquires. Oliver Sawle was possessed of one moiety as early as 1640; the other moiety was purchased of the Arundells, in 1724, by Henry Hawkins, Esq., of S Austell, from whom it has descended to John Tremmayne, Esq., of Heligan, the present owner.

The manor of Tregorrick was purchased in 1771, by Charles Rashluigh, Esq.,of Sir Edward Dering, bart., Sir Roland Wynn, bart., and William Strickland, Esq., representatives of Edward Henshaw, Esq., who married the heiress of the Ropers, of Eltham, in Kent. It is probable that it was, at an earlier period, the property of the Lowers, of S.Winnow, whose estates were inherited by the Ropers.

The manor of Treverbyn having been forfeited to the Crown by the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter, was, with other manors, annexed by Henry VIII, in 1540, to the Duchy of Cornwall, in lieu of the honour of Wallingford. The other moiety, which constituted the manor of Treverbyn-Trevanion, continued in the TRevanion family family until recently. The whole manor is now, by purchase, the property of Messrs. Gil and Ivimy of London.

Menaguins, now a farm house, was the seat of Richard Scobell, clerk of the Parliament to Oliver Cromwell;; it descended, by a co-heiress of Scobells, to the family of Carlyon, of Tregrehan, who are also proprictors of the bartons of Porthtowan and Penventon. Merther, or Merthen, orginally a scat of the Laas, is also, by purchase, the property of that family. The heiress of Laa married Tonkin of S Blazey.

Nightor, a farm house, near Trethurgy, was a scat of the Trevanions. The Principal land-owners of this parish are the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, Sir C.B. Graves-Sawle, bart., T.T.S. Carlyon, John Tremayne, and C.H. Hawkins, Esquires. The proprietors of Charletown are known as the Charlestown Company. The parish feast is on Trinity Sunday. The church is said, by some, to be dedicated to S. Austin. Hennsburrow, at the extreme northern boundery of the parish, rises to an altitude of 1034 feet above the level of the sea.

The following sad story is too well authenticated to be omitted. About a century ago, at a time when corn was scarce and dear, some tinners rose in a body and proceeded to Par, where it was reported much grain was deposited in a cellar for shipment. Passing by a tin-work near S Austell, they found a man at work named Rosevear, who, at that time was one of the constables. To him they applied with false message, sayinf that they had an order from a magistrate, that in their journey to Par they should take him, as a constable, with them, to inspect their conduct, and see that no mischief was done. Rosevear, who possesses not the most acute penctraation, deluded by this vulgarly plausiable tale, instantly joined the mob, and on his way to Par, caught the same spirit by which the whole body was actuated. Arriving at the door of the cellar, they persuaded him that as a constable it was his duty to break it open.This he did and the mob proceeded according to the rules of plunder. On returning to his home, Rosevear and several others were selected as examples of vindictive justice, to escape which he absconded, and concealed himself in the neighbourhood of Launceston until he was nearly starved. One day, as he was near rhe public road, he observed two men on horseback, whom he instantly recognized as his neighbours and relations. Encouraged by their appearance, and urged by his own distresses, he ventured to address them, and to make inquiries respectiong affairs at home. Of this they gave him a favourable account, assuring him that the late riots were nearly forgotten, and that he might return without any danger. Deceived by their pretences, he joined their company, but no sooner had they got him in their possession, than he discovered that his confidence was misplaced. Those men were at that very time returning from Launceston gaol, whither they had conveyed one of Rosevear’s accomplices, and then had a warrant with them for his apprehension. Thus treachcrously captured, he was at once committed to prison, and , at the ensuing assizes being found guilty and condemned to die, was shortly after executed, and his cousins received the reward that had been offered, which they did not hesitate to pocket. After execution, his body was brought, pursuant to his sentence, to what was then S. Austell downs, but since enclosed, where it was suspended on a gibbet, to blacken in the sun, and for its bones to clatter in the breeze. Many, not long since living, recollect to have seen the gibbet standing. The name of Rosevear is still familiar in S. Austell, and the transcriber has heard his parents speak of the severity of his sentence with a sigh of commiseration.

Many wonderful stories have been told of Cornish giants, and among others the following:

A giant travelling one night over Gwallow downs, near Charlestown, was overtaken by a storm that blew his hat off. He immediately ran after it, by having a large staff in his hand, which rather impeded his progress, he pitched it in the ground, until his hat was secured’ but after wandering about for some time in darkness, without being able to find his hat, he gave over the pursuit, and returned to secure his staff, but this, also, he was unable to discover, and they were both irrecoverably lost. When daylight appeared, the hat and staff were both found by the inhabitants, about a mile asunder’ the former lying on the ground, the latter in a perpendicular- position. The hat lay on Whitehouse downs, and bore some resemblance to a mill- stone, very thick, but not of great diameter. This singular stone continued in this place till the autumn of 1798, when some regiments of soldiers being encamped round it, fancied, as it was a wet season, that this giant’s hat was the cause of the rain; so they raised it on its edge and rolled it over the cliff into the sea. His walking staff still remains stuck in the ground near the Charlestown mills, being an enormous pillar of granite, about twelve feet high above ground, commonly called Longstone. It is no less curious than true that the Longstone is a perfectly isolated piece of granite, there being none within miles of the position it has so long occupied.

Samuel Drew, A.M., was the son of Joseph Drew, by Thomasin, his second wife, and was born near S. Austell town, March 3, 1765. At about eleven years of age, he was apprenticed to a shoemaker: a trade however, in which he never excelled. For some time after the expiration of his apprenticeship, he could scarcely read or write. He joined the Methodists while yet a journeymen shoemaker, in 1785, at the age of 20; and from this time his self-education may be said to have commenced. In 1791 he married Honour Halls, with whom he had a fortune of ten pounds at once, and three years after, fifty pounds more. At this period he prosecuted his studies with untiring perseverance. In 1799 he published his "Remarks on Paine’s Age of Reason," which he reprinted three years later. In 1800, Mr Drew published an elegy on the death of Mr. Patterson, a merchant of S. Austell, who was drowned at Wadebridge. That same year he published "Observations on a pamphlet lately published by the Rev. R. Polwhele." Entitled "Anecdotes of Methodism." In 1802 he published his best known work, the "Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul;" the copyright of which he sold to Mr. Edwards, of Bristol, for 20 pounds, and thirty copies of the new edition. Twenty-eight years after the copyright again became his, when, after a careful revision he sold it for 250 pounds. His treatise "On the Identity and Resurrection of the Human Body," was published in 1809. In 1815 appeared the first portion of his most extensive work, the "History of Cornwall;" the eighth part appeared in 1817, when the printing of the residue was deferred for seven years, on account of the bank-ruptey of the publisher. It finally appeared in two volumes, quarto. In 1817 he published the life of Dr. Coke, written by him at the doctor’s own request. In 1820 he published his competition essay on the "Being and Attributes of the Deity." This was one of his most elaborate works. In 1819 he became editor of the Imperial Magazine, about that time started in Liverpool, by Mr Fisher. In May, 1824, the degree of A.M. was conferred on Mr. Drew, by Marischal College, Aberdeen. Mr D. Continued his literary labours almost to the day of his death. He died at the house of his son-in-law, Mr. Read, at Helston, and was interred in the church-yard of that town, by the side of his wife. A tomb, bearing the following inscription marks their graves:--- Beneath this stone repose the mortal remains of Samuel Drew, A.M., of S Austell, (author of several esteemed metaphysical treatises), who, undaunted by difficulties, persevered in the pursuit of knowledge, and raised himself from an humble station to literary eminence. Possossing, with lofty intellect, the feelings of a philanthropist, and the mild graces of a Christian, he lived equally beloved and admired, and , in steadfast hope of a blissful immortality, through the merits of his Savior, he died in the town, deeply lamented, March 29th, 1833; aged 68 years. This stone also covers the relics of his beloved wife, Honour, who, after a short illness, was removed to a happier world, Aug. 19, 1828; aged 57. "So glides the stream of human life away."

An Almshouse, with six apartments for poor persons, was erected in 1809. The weather in Cornwall is proverbially uncertain. On Carne Gray common, and immense tract of waste land, near the village of Trethurgy, stands a huge pile of granite; Garker moor, is in the vale below. Hence the distich:--- When Carne-Gray Rock wears a hood, Garker Moor, beware of a flood.

This parish, important in an economical point of view, on account of its mineral production, affords a vast fund of geological information. Its northern part is composed of granite; its southern part of various rocks belonging to the perphyritic crystals of felspar. On the western side it comprises several kinds of this rock’ some charucterised by the proportions of shorl that enter into their composition’ and others by containing tale instead of mica, and by the felspar being prone to an extensive decay, in which state it furnishes porcelain clay, or china clay, for the potteries. Carclaze tin mine is one of the greatest mining curiosities in the county. It is worked open, and the mouth of the enormous pit comprises an area of some acres. Numbers of little stamping mills work on its sides, and at the bottom is adit to carry off the water, waste, &c. Of later years it has also been worked for china clay. It is of considerable depth, and is excavated entirely in a white granite soil. The tin ore occurs intermixed with shorl and quartz, in the form of short irregular veins, which traverse the ground in every direction.

Hornblend rocks succeed the granite, and produce a red fertile soil. These extend a little to the south of the town of S. Austell, and are followed by a blue lamellar slate, in which the mines are situated, The rock is much softer, and more argillaceous then the hornblend slate, and decomposes into a light coloured soil. The matrix of its lodes abounds in chloride; it is probably a chloride schist. This formation is traversed by several beds of felspar, porphyry, and elvin courses, in the western side of the parish which run north-east and south-west, in a somewhat tortuous manner, and dip towards the granite. One of there elvins, at Polruddon, near Pentewan, has been extensively quarried for many centuries, and is much esteemed as a building material. This chlorite slate also contains, in the cove at Duporth, a bed of compact magnesian rock, abounding in Asbestos, and passes on either hand into the surrounding slate, by means of layers of talcous schist. This parish has long been celebrated for its stream works, which are diluvial beds containing tin ore, They are generally found in deep valleys where rivulets flow, which are used in separation the tin ore, by its inferior specific gravity, form common stones or pebbles; hence the name of "stream works." Pentewan stream-work was one of the most interesting in the county. Its lowest bed consisted of pebbles, gravel, and tin ore, and it rested on the solid rock. Immediately above this tin ground, was a black stratum of vegetable remains, among which were stumps of trees, standing erect, with their roots penetrating downward into the bed of gravel, This subterrancan forest stood forty-eight feet below high water mark; showing that there must have been a change in the relative sea level. On this vegetable bed reposed a thick stratum of silt, intermixed with horns of deer, and with other relics of land animals, and also with detached pieces of timber. This silt is of the same description as that forming in the Truro river and other estuarics on the coast’ and it contains layers of shells peculiar to such situations.

The Silt is covered by a deep deposit of siliceous sand, in which were various remains, principally of marine origin, and lastly, over this lay another bed of silt like the preceding, which reached to the surgace, where a thin marsh soil is in a state of cultivation. The upper bed of silt was nearly on a level with the sea, being separated and protected from it by the interposition of a sandy beach.