BORN C1645 - DIED C1715

In the book Colonial and Revolutionary Lineages of America, Volume 20 by The American Historical Co. Inc., New York, 1959, pp41-42, they indicate that Warnaar Hornbeck came to the province of New Netherland in 1660 in the ship "The Guilded Otter" (de Vergulden Otter) although his name has not been found on any passenger list. There was a requirement for the men to be at least 15 years of age or older and the passenger lists named the head of the household by name, plus a mention of "wife", number of children, any servants or apprentices being mentioned only as "boy" or girl". The ship was delayed because of the Indian war and did not arrive at Wiltwyck until 1662.

Gillis van Hoornbeck had correspondence from Esopus to the "chamber at Amsterdam on a petition of Gillis van Hornbeck to send a vessel to New Netherland and Curacoo." Was it the Guilded Otter and Warnaar is related to Gillis? He appears again when he was a witness to a baptism of Jacob Steenwyck, child of Cornelis Steenwyck and Margareta de Riemer, in the "Old Fort Church", New York on Feb 24, 1664, but appears to have returned to Amsterdam and was there in 1681-3. On Apr 30, 1683, he and Tobias Hornbeck wrote to "a church in New York" from Amsterdam, for which they (Gillis and Tobias) had helped secure a new pastor.

This was the area and the time when we first find record of Warnaar Hoornbeeck, and it is interesting to picture the man against the background of these affairs as we examine the record of his existence.

There have been two books written about Warnaar Hornbeck and his descendants. The first was written in 1977 - WARNAAR HORNBECK DESCENDANTS (now out of print) by Hilda Sayre and Duffy C. Hornbeck, Sr. The other was written in 1994 by Shirley Hornbeck, HORNBECK HUNTING (THE BOOK) AND DESCENDANTS OF WARNAAR HORNBECK BORN C1645. , also now out of print. However, a new book is in the works and should be out by Mar 1, 2001. E-mail me for details. Both books state that the exact date of Warnaar's birth is unknown. If he in fact was 15 at the time of his arrival in America and we know he was here by 1660, he was then born at least by 1645. In any event, Warnaar was in America by 1660 and is the earliest proven proven ancestor for the American Hornbeck family. By 1662 he was settled at Wiltwyck, now Kingston, in Ulster Co., New York. Wiltwyck was in a part of the territory called "New Amsterdam" and was a colony established near the Hudson River by Dutch "free farmers" in 1652. After the British conquest, the name of the settlement was changed to Kingston in 1669.

The possibility exists that Warnaar was an orphan, and an effort to locate records to study this point reveal meager information. The Orphans Court at Amsterdam has mentioned of Gillis van Hornbeck, 1659, Warnaar in 1670, and Lieven (Leyden) has records of William Lievener and Rombont, son of Govert van Hoornbeck. Some of the Dutch records were destroyed during World War II and most of the remaining records have been microfilmed by the Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. A Warnaar HORNBECK does appear in Orphan Court records in The Netherlands, however it cannot be proven that it is the same Warnaar Hornbeck.

Perhaps Warnaar was the son of Antoni Hoornbeeck who had sailed to America in 1641 on the "Cornick Davit" (King David), and maybe Antoni was killed during the Indian War of 1644-45.

On Nov 29, 1658, Johannes Pieterse Van Brugh (Verbrugge), who was from Haarlem, North Holland, was appointed as Orphan Master. On Dec 16, 1662 Annetje Dirks, former widow of Dirck Smith, was asked whether she had seen Messers. Hornbeeck and Verbrugge. Her name was then Annetje Meinders. She had arrived in America with her husband and nursing child, having sailed on the ship "Brownfish" in 1658. Her husband, Dirck Smith, had been killed by the Indians so perhaps Warnaar had been named guardian for the child, since the court appointed two guardians for children when a man died. It was also customary for a widow to remarry quickly, sometimes within a month.

It is difficult to determine if Warnaar had been born in America, with early records unavailable, or lost; or if he had been born in Holland, and his name simply did not appear on a passenger list. It is even possible that the information is there, but hidden by the custom of using a patronymic.

Whatever his origin, Holland or America, he certainly was in America by 1660, and, according to history, fathered 18 children by two wives. Although the names of all of the eighteen had not been proven, some of these do appear on baptismal records in early New York. Still other names have been found in the early records, and it is difficult to be sure what they were to Warnaar.

Warnaar was a farmer, however in 1662 his name is found in a list of Hurley soldiers in a rendezvous at Marbleton. He is mentioned in a court action Apr 18, 1662 when he admitted "honestly the indebtedness for a pair of shoes to Pieter van Alen". Ordered: Payment to be made in wheat (3-1/2 measures). Pieter van (H)alen was a shoemaker from Utrecht. He sailed to America in the "Gilded Beaver May 17, 1658", and a record of the voyage mentions him, wife, two children "and boy, full fare" who could be Warnaar. Warnaar was in the area at least two years prior to this court action as proven by another court action recorded Nov 14, 1662 wherein Warrener Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Jansen Stoutenberg, defendant. Warrener demanded two hundred guilders heavy money, a couple of shirts, a pair of stockings and a pair of shoes as payment for wages earned. Defendant admits owing plaintiff 80 gldrs; according to the verbal contract between them and says he paid 30 gldrs thereof. Plaintiff admits having received 30 gldrs; and says that as payment has not been made in accordance with the contract, TWO YEARS HAVING ALREADY PASSED, he required full payment. Ordered: Defendant to pay plaintiff as per contract 80 gldrs; unless plaintiff is able to adduce proof of the agreement between them."

Warnaar married first probably in Kingston, Ulster Co., New York about 1668-1670 to Anna de Hooges who died sometime between 1688 and 1693. He married second about 1690-1692 to Margreta Ten Eyck (Margreit "Grietje" Tyssen Dent Kruis). His second wife Margreit Tyssen must have been much younger than he to have been the mother of children such as Rachel born 1708 and Catrina born 1710. Even if she was 50 at the time of this last birth, she was born c1660 and this would seem to indicate that she was considerably younger than Warnaar. According to the birth of his last child Catrina in 1710, he would have been about 65 at the time of her birth. Warnaar died about 1715 probably in Rochester, Ulster Co., NY.

He was at that time a farmhand of Geertrude Andriessen Bratt, daughter of Andries Bratt. She was the widow of Jacob Jansen Stol who had been ferry master at Beverswyck in 1603. He was among the founders of Wiltwyck in the Spring of 1650 and was slain by Indians in Oct of 1659. Following his death, she married second to Jacob Jansen Stoutenburg, third to Hendrick Alberts, fourth to Jacob Jansen Slyckkaten and fifth to Aert Martenson Doorn. It was while in her employ that he violated the ordinance against leaving the stockade without permission. It would appear from court records that he drove one of four wagons to the fields, under her orders, and when the case came to court he referred the court to his mistress (employer). On Oct 23, 1663, Roelof Swartwout, Schout, plaintiff vs. Geertruyd Andriesen, defendant. "Plaintiff demands from defendant a fine of 50 gldrs for violating for the first time the ordinance enacted Aug 4 and a fine of 200 gldrs for a second violation in having harvested with four wagons and a fine also for a third offense in having......arbitrarily harvested with two wagons and having a gun in the field. Also a further fine for carrying fodder for her horses on a Sunday, on which occasion the horses were seized, but nevertheless the matter was settled with the Schout for five schepels of wheat and a can of brandy for the guard. Defendant answers that she several time was refused a convoy and therefore she was obliged to gather in her grain herself, without a guard, for fear that the rain would spoil it. The honorable court, having heard both parties, orders the defendant to pay the full amount of the fines demanded for violating the ordinance, and to pay plaintiff the agreed fine of five schepels of wheat and can of brandy". There were many other arrests for this same violation, of other residents. A gldr (guilder) was Dutch money. A Schout was like a sheriff, and a schepel was a unit of measure.

The first wife of Warnaar was Anna, daughter of Anthony de Hooges and his wife, Eva Bratt. Warnaar and Anna were the parents of:

1. Antonio ( -1710)
2. Evaatje baptized June 18, 1671 at Kingston
3. Lodewyck born July 9, 1676 at Hurley
4. Joost
5. Sara born at Hurley baptized April 24, 1681
6. Johannes baptized Dec. 9, 1683 at Kingston
7. Johannes baptized May 3, 1685 at Kingston
8. Marietje "Marie", baptized Feb. 19, 1688
(Possibly others)

The date of his marriage to Anne de Hooges has not been determined. The area was sometimes without benefit of clergy and a common practice had arisen of a couple announcing their intentions, setting up housekeeping, and making it legal when they had a chance, all perfectly legal according to the times in which they lived. Anna de Hooges apparently died sometime between 1688 and 1693.

Warnaar married a second time to Margreit "Grietje" Tyssen (Dent Kruis). This is the way her name appears on the baptism records of her children: Grietje Tysen - Grietje Tysse - Grietje Thysse - and Grietje Dent Kruis. Issue:

9. Mathys baptized Nov, 14. 1693
10. Tobias baptized Sep. 1, 1695
11. Evert baptized May 15, 1698
12. Jacobus baptized June 9, 1700
13. Marritjen baptized July 12, 1702
14. Lea baptized Sep.. 22, 1705
15. Rachel baptized June 20, 1708

Other interesting records reveal that there was a Lodewyake Hoornbeek in Ulster Co. in 1684. At that time, the colony of New York was so governed that one section enjoyed the right of popular elections while another part did not. Esopus, now Ulster Co., New York was in the category of the latter and some of the residents formed a petition to protest the situation. Among the adults who signed this petition was Lodewyake Hoornbeek. This would not have been the son of Warnaar as he was born July 9, 1676 and would not have been an adult in 1684.

Five years later, in 1689, male residents of Ulster Co., New York were asked to take an oath of allegiance. The name Lodewyake did not appear on the list, but among those who failed to appear was Warnaar Hornbeak.

One other early record which we have failed to connect to Warnaar is that of William Caspersz Horenbeek, who apparently married Fytjen Van Vegten and had issue:
1. Jeronimus, bapt. June 24, 1711. Witnesses were Jan Batist Demon and Nellltjen Demon. Jan Baptist Du Mond was among the witnesses at the baptism of Lea Hornbeck in 1705, daughter of Warnaar and Grietje Thysse.

However, using the Dutch system of naming, it is possible that the William Caspersz Horenbeek previously mentioned might have actually been a son of Caspar Jacobse Hallenbeck, who is mentioned on page five of "Representative Pioneer Settlers of New Netherland". This, of course, considering that an error may have been made by the recorder at the time of the birth of Jeronimus.

What manner of man was he, our ancestor, Warnaar van Hoorenbeeck? A family man for sure, honest but often in debt, and perhaps a bit outspoken. He worked for a living and apparently learned the trade of wagonmaker. The records speak for themselves.

Tuesday, Jan 23, 1663
Gommert Roulussen, plaintiff vs. Warrenaer Hoorenbeek, defendant; plaintiff demands payment of 17 schepels of wheat, and also three schepels of wheat for interest. Defendant admits debt. Order: defendant to pay within six weeks.

Sep. 18, 1663
Roelof Swartwout, Schout, plaintiff vs Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant for violation of the ordinance of Aug 4, against leaving the stockade. Default. (did not appear).

Oct 9, 1663
Roelof Swartwout, Schout, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, same case, second default.

Oct 30, 1663
Roelof Swartwout, Schout, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands from defendant a fine of 25 gldrs for violating the ordinance of Aug 4th in that he harvested without permission and a convoy. Defendant refers himself to his mistress (Gertruyd Andiresen) because she represented him at the said session of Oct 23. Plaintiff is ordered to summon her in this matter before the court.

Feb 24, 1665
Walran DuMont, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands from defendant 19 schepels of wheat as per note for delivered goods. Defendant admits debt, but says that he himself cannot collect it from another. The honorable court orders defendant to satisfy plaintiffs aforementioned claim.

It was this same spring that the local citizens had rebelled against the English soldiers abuse. They had been compelled to board the soldiers in their homes, and were tired of being "pushed around" by them. On May 26, 1665, some of the residents went to the guardhouse with guns. There was some drunkenness and shoving involved and the end result was a court case in which Warnaar was called to testify.

Monday Jun 1, 1665 (excerpt)
Jan Hendericksen, alias Jan Buyr was asked whether his watch fell on last Tuesday evening and replied "yes, because Warnaer Hoorenbeeck on the previous night took his watch" and that on said evening he mounted guard for Warnaar.

Sep 1, 1665
Inventory and sale of the estate of Gysbert Van Imbrach - deceased. Among the sales: W. Hoorenbeeck - a new gray hat, 32 gldrs.

Oct 13, 1665
Henderick Palingh, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Absent - default.

Nov 24, 1665
Andries Pietersen Noorman, plaintiff vs. Warnaar HOORENBEECK, defendant. Absent - default.

Jan 19, 1666
Joris Hael, plaintiff vs. Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Absent - default.

Jan 26, 1666
Joris Poorter, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant three sch. of wheat, besides the costs. Defendant admits the debt and says not having refused him the same. The honorable court orders defendant to satisfy plaintiffs demand with costs.

Mar 9, 1666
Thomas Harmensen, plaintiff vs. Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant 13 gldrs in sewan. Defendant admits debt. The honorable court orders defendant to satisfy plaintiffs demand. (Sewan was "light money" or wampum, which was strings of clam shells made by the Indians and used when "hard money" was unavailable.)

Oct 16, 1666
Gerrat Fooken, plaintiff vs. Pieter Hillabrants, Warnaar Hoorenbeeck and Jan Hendricks, defendants. Plaintiff demands of defendants an amount of 26 schepels of wheat, on account of the sale of the crops in the new village in the year 1664, according to a signed contract. The defendants answer that plaintiff sold them grain, and coming on the great piece on the field, defendants did not find grain worth the cutting, and further say that defendants can be free with the wyncoop" which they offer to proove. The honorable court orders defendants to provide proof at the next court session. (This case was apparently settled out of court as it does not appear in court next session, involving Warnaar.

Oct 16, 1666
Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Aert Martensen Doorn, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant a sum of 108 sch. of wheat, being a portion of earned wages and a portion for advanced money. Further demands a suit of clothes owed for more than three years. Defendant answers that he claims against the above demand one years board, being 1-1/2 sch. of wheat weekly. The honorable court orders parties to themselves select two good men for the purpose of settling their various accounts.

Nov 23, 1666
Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Jan Jansen van Oosterhout, defendant. Plaintiff demands 13 sch. of wheat, balance for a wagon. Defendant admits the debt and agrees to pay the 13 sch. of wheat in eight or ten days. The honorable court orders defendant to satisfy plaintiffs demand.

Nov 22, N.S. 1666, appeared before me Mattheus Capito, secretary of the village of Wildwyck, and the below-named witnesses; Mr. Reynier Van der Coelan, of the first part and Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, of the second part, who declares having ordered of the aforesaid Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, two new wagons, which the contractor agrees to deliver to the principal at this place in the month of May of the following year of 1667. The principal promises to order for the two new wagons the iron-work and to pay for the labor on said wagons the amount of 180 gldrs in sewan or value of the same on delivery. With which contract the aforesaid appearers are satisfied, promising to sincerely comply with the same, pledging their respective persons and estates as per law. On which account the respective appearers, besides Roelof Swartwout and Allert Heymans, as witnesses invited and requested for the purpose, have subscribed to the present with their own hand at Wildwyck on the day and in the near named before.
Signed: Reynier Van doer Coelle The Mark "X" of Warnaer Hoorenbeeck
Roelof Swartwout
Alaerdt Heymansz Roosa
In my presence, signed: Mattheus Capito, Secretary.

Jan 8/18, 1667
Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Pieter Hillebrants defendant. Absent - default.

Jan 15/25, 1667
Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Pieter Hillebrants defendant. Plaintiff demands of the defendant 7-1/2 sch. of wheat for wages both owing since the year 1663 and requests payment. Defendant answers there was only 6-1/2 sch. of grain loaned to him with one sch. for wages, together 7-1/2 sch. Plaintiff is satisfied with defendants answer. The honorable court orders defendant to pay plaintiff 7-1/2 sch. of wheat.

Jan 15/25, 1667
Thomas Harmensen, plaintiff vs. Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant 31 gldrs light money with costs. Defendant answers not to owe any more than 13 gldrs. Plaintiff answers that he attached on Arent Jansen, wheelwright his claim of 3 sch. of wheat for which attachment defendant has become security. Defendant answers that he became security for as far as he should have received the three sch. of wheat of Aert Martensen Doorn on account of Arent Jansen. The honorable court orders defendant as per admission to satisfy plaintiff for the 13 gldrs with costs and that the defendant, as per his own confession, shall be obliged to receive the three sch. of wheat of Aert Martensen Doorn and after having received them, to pay the same to plaintiff.

Jan 29/Feb 8, 1667
Warnaer Hoorenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Ariaen Gerretsen, defendant. Absent. Warnaer Hoorenbeeck demands payment by defendant of the amount of 116 gldrs on account of an assignment of Aert Martensen Doorn from the grain bought at the vendue of Aert Martensen Doorn. The vendue master is instructed to assist plaintiff in judicially enforcing the payment thereof by defendant.

Jan 13/23, 1667/8
Warnaer Horenbeek, plaintiff vs. Reyner Van Coelen, defendant. Default.

Feb 7, 1667/8
Warnaer Horenbeeck, plaintiff vs. Reynier Van Coelen, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant 122 gldrs for wages. Defendant admits the debt only believes it to be five or six gldrs less. The honorable court orders defendant to immediately pay plaintiff what he shall be found to owe after balancing accounts......complains to the honorable court that defendant Van Coelen has publicly on the street called him a thief and a rascal and agrees to prove same. Defendant Van Coelen answers that plaintiff has said that he charges two for one (viz. two pints of wine for one). Agrees to prove the same and also offers to prove the contrary from the charge. Parties ordered to prove their accusations and assertions at the next session under penalty.

Feb 4/14, 1667/8
Reynier Van Coelen, plaintiff vs. Warnaer Horenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff says that defendant slandered him by saying that he charges two for one. Requests satisfaction and persists by the same, and brings Jo. Hend. to the meeting who says, having been in the company and having seen that Van der Coelen ordered to draw wine, and to fetch the same in and charged one can. The defendant still complains that Van Coelen on the public street, called him a rascal and a thief. Van Coelen says having done so because he slandered him, saying he charges two for one. The honorable court ordered Warnaer Horenbeeck to produce proof at the next session.

Feb 11/21, 1667/8
Freryck Peters, Warnaer Horenbeeck, Thomas Quick and Matth. Blanchan requests the honorable court to have judically enforced their obtained judgments against Reynier van Coelen. The officer is ordered to proceed with the execution.

May 1/11, 1667
A stallion, for which Warnaer Hoorenbeeck bids 155 gldrs, which is increased by the auctioneer with 100 gldrs and was bid down to 20 gldrs; and Warnaer Hoorenbeeck became the purchaser for 175 gldrs. Henderick Jochemsz and Jan Hendericksz became sureties for Warnaer at this purchase.

Nov 1, 1667
George Hall, plaintiff vs. Warner Horenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant 13 gldrs 4 st. Defendant admits the debt, says he will pay next week. Defendant is ordered to satisfy plaintiffs demand.

Nov 1, 1667
Freryck Peters, plaintiff vs. Warner Horenbeeck, defendant. Plaintiff demands of defendant a balance of 104 sch. of oats and costs. Defendant admits the debt. The honorable court orders defendant to satisfy plaintiff.

Nov 8, 1667
George Hall requests that the judgement pronounced in his favor on Nov 1 against Warnaar Hoorenbeeck, Albert Gerrits, Mattys Coeuracts, and Cornelis Hogeboom shall be judicially enforced. The officer is ordered to attend to the same and to proceed with the execution.

Secretary Court Minutes:
"On this Jan 3, 1671/2 Roelof Swartwoudt informs the honorable court that he, Warnaer Hoorenbeecq, Johannes de Hoogeus and Daniel Purine, while returning from Marbleton, between Hurley and Marbletown, found a fire on a wood path and near it four savages, busy cooking something, and, judging from their languages they were southern savages, which they themselves acknowledged. They asked Swartwoudt and the whole company from whence they came, and Johannes de Hoogeus answered "from Waerwaersink", and the aforesaid savages said they also intended to go to Waewaersink and after much talk they said to the savages "We shall follow you," and for the purpose of making the savages follow them they took one of their rifles. And they, seeing that the savages did not follow them, returned right away to the spot and found the savages gone, and they could see by the burning of the fire that the savages had departed shortly after them and maintain that the savages are planning mischief, and therefore informed the honorable court. Captain Chambers proposes the necessity of keeping a watch. The honorable court orders a watch of four men till further orders because the messenger remains away beyond the time Captain Chambers proposes the necessity of having the village closed as per the decree."

In April of 1670, a proclamation was issued "to raise and exercise the Inhabitants of Hurley and Marbleton according to the Discipline of Warr; Whereupon Proclamation was made by Beat of Drum according to the Warrant underwritten." Among the names listed for the town of Hurley was: Wardener Hornbeck.

The village of Hurley, situated in the foothills of the Catskills, was founded by fifteen Dutch and Huguenot families in 1661. The old stone houses which were built still line Hurley's streets today and each year "Stone House Day" is held on the second Saturday in July.

Warnaar had probably met his first wife, Anna de Hooges, when she accompanied her stepfather, Roelof Swartwout, to the Esopus, following his marriage to Eva Alberts Bradt. Eva was a first cousin to Warnaar's employer, from whom Roelof had rented a farm. The first children of Warnaar were born at Hurley, according to their marriage banns. We are fortunate to have a description of the house which they must have occupied such a short time before the death of Anna, as follows:

"Warner Hoorenbeek of Hurly and Antie his wife deed to Lois du Bois of the New Paltz Meadow ground in Hurly by name of number 14, between lott of Mathys Blanshan and Roelof Swartout. Signed: 31 Mar 1686 in Kingston, Warner Hoorenbeek, Annetie Hoornbeek. Witnesses: Jan Hendericks, Antey de Moot. Entered: May 19, 1686. John Ward, dpt. clk. acknowledged by signers day of date, Henr. Beekman."

"11 Feb 1685
Arent Teunison, attorney of Peter Jacobsen of New York doth for him Let unto farme unto Warner Hoornbeek of Hurley in the County of Ulster, Land in the limitts and county of Mombakus known by the name of Warwarasinck amounting to 30 morgan or 60 acres for ten yeares beginning on the 1 May next. Warner HOORNBEEK to occupy said tract and put it into sufficient fences, to build a Sufficient dwelling house 30 foot long and 24 foot wide with breastwork or ye easing: that shod compleat as it ought to be with two door cozens and one window cozen with a chamber floor to be laid as it ought to be with a chimney in the middell of the said house and a barn 40 foot long and 28 wide with three leantos on each side and on the one end, the barn must be thatched; also a stack or borgh with six rods of poles according as they are commonly made. Warner HOORNBEEK to pay 4 bushells of good winter wheat yearly. At the end of 10 years he is to have 30 sch. winter wheat sowed, and to leave land in good fence with house, barne and stack aforesaid. Signed; Arent Tennison, Warner HOORNBEEK, Witnesses: Richard Hays, Huybert Lammerson."

Sources: Warnaar Hornbeck Descendants; Hornbeck Hunting (The Book) and Descendants of Warnaar Hornbeck Born c1645; Baptismal and Marriage Records of the Old Dutch Church of Kingston, Ulster Co., NY transcribed and edited by Roswell Randall Hoes pub 1891; New York Calendar of Wills compiled and edited by Berthold Fernow, p188, Will of Tobias Hoornbeck of Rochester, NY dated 5 Jun 1767, probated 10 Apr 1771; Calendar of NJ Wills, Administrations, etc. Vol III, p164-165, published as Documents Relating to Colonial Hist. of the State of NJ, lst Ser., Vol. XXXII; and other documents.