A nationwide population census on a regular basis dates from the establishment of the United States. Article I, Section 2, of the United States Constitution required in 1787 that Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.

In subsequent decades, the practice of "Service for a Term of Years" died out. "Indians not taxed" were those not living in settled areas and paying taxes; by the 1940's, all American Indians were considered to be taxed. The Civil War of 1861-65 ended slavery (abolished legally through the 13th Amendment in 1865), and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1868, officially ended Article I's three-fifths rule. Thus, the original census requirements were modified Direct taxation based on the census never became practical.

The 1790 Census:
The first enumeration began on the first Monday in August 1790, little more than a year after the inauguration of President Washington and shortly before the second session of the first Congress ended. The Members assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of the U.S. judicial districts under an act that, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census-taking through 1840. The law required that every household be visited and that completed census schedules be posted in "two of the most public places within [each jurisdiction], there to remain for the inspection of all concerned.." and that "the aggregate amount of each description of persons" for every district be transmitted to the President.

The six inquiries in 1790 called for the name of the head of the family and the number of persons in each household of the following descriptions: Free White males of 16 years and upward (to assess the country's industrial and military potential), free White males under 16 years, free White females, all other free persons (by sex and color), and slaves. Marshals took the census in the original 13 States, plus the districts of Kentucky, Maine, and Vermont, and the Southwest Territory (Tennessee). There is no evidence of a 1790 census in the Northwest Territory.

A twenty-dollar fine, to be split between the marshals' assistants and the government, would be levied against anyone who refused to answer the numerator's questions.

The marshals were expected to finish the census within nine months of the Census Day -- by 1 May 1791. Although most of the returns were in long before the deadline, Congress had to extend the count until 1 March 1792. By that time some people probably were counted who had not been born or present in 1790.

The jurisdictions of the thirteen original states stretched over an area of seventeen present-day states. Census schedules survive for only two-thirds of those states. The surviving schedules were indexed by state and published by the Bureau of the Census in the early 1900s. Bureau of the Census, Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790, 12 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1908), can be found in most research libraries; it has been reprinted by various publishers over the years.

The first census comprised an enumeration of the inhabitants of the present states of Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont and Virginia. The 1790 census today, however, is not complete. The schedules were filed in the State Department, but some were burned when the British burned the Capitol at Washington in the War of 1812 -- the returns for the states of Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee and Virginia having been destroyed then.

For Virginia, every effort was made to secure duplicates and some records were secured from manuscript lists of state enumerations made in the years 1782, 1783, 1784 and 1785.

Through the courtesy of the State Librarian and members of the Library, an Act was passed by the Legislature allowing the Census Office to withdraw the lists for purposes of making copies and publishing names in lieu of the Federal Census returns.

In response to requests from genealogists, etc. a bill was passed authorizing publication of the names of heads of families in the 1790 census. As the Federal census schedules of the state of Virginia are missing, the lists of the state enumerations made in 1782, 1783, 1784 and 1785 while not complete, have been substituted.

The schedules for 1790 form a unique inheritance for the Nation, since they represent for each of the States concerned, a complete list of the heads of families in the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution. The framers were the statesmen and leaders of thought, but those whose names appear upon the schedules of the First Census were in general the plain citizens who by their conduct in war and peace, made the Constitution possible and by their intelligence and self-restraint put it into successful operation.

In Mar 1790, the Union consisted of twelve states -- Rhode Island the last of the original thirteen to enter the Union, being admitted May 29 of the same year. Vermont, the first addition, was admitted in the following year before the results of the first census were announced. Maine was a part of Massachusetts, Kentucky was a part of Virginia and the present states of Alabama and Mississippi were parts of Georgia. The present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, with part of Minnesota, were known as the Northwest Territory, and the present state of Tennessee, then a part of North Carolina, was soon to be organized as the Southwest Territory.

The territory west of the Allegheny Mountains, with the exception of a portion of Kentucky, was unsettled and scarcely penetrated.

The boundaries of towns and other minor divisions and even those of counties, were in many cases unknown or not defined at all.

Both the original and printed 1790 census schedules are available on microfilm for Connecticut, Maine (then part of Massachusetts), Maryland Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont. The schedules for Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia were burned during the War of 1812 (there are substitutes for most of these). Published and microfilmed 1790 schedules for Virginia were reconstructed from state enumerations and tax lists.

Because of the availability of the printed 1790 census schedules, researchers tend to overlook the importance of consulting the original schedules, which are readily available on microfilm. As in most cases, the researcher who relies on printed transcripts may miss important information and clues found only in the original version. The 1790 census records are useful for identifying the locality to be searched for other types of records for a named individual. The 1790 census will, in most cases, help distinguish the target family from others of the same name; identify immediate neighbors who may be related; identify slave holders; and spot spelling variations of surnames. Free men "of color" are listed as heads of household by name. Slaves appear in age groupings by name of owner. By combining those age groupings with probate inventories and tax list data, it is sometimes possible to determine names of other family members and the birth order of those individuals.

Into the 19th Century:
Starting with the 1800 census, the Secretary of State directed the enumeration and, from 1800 to 1840, the marshals reported the results to him. From 1850 through 1900, the Interior Department, established in 1849, had jurisdiction.

The 1800 and 1810 population censuses were similar in scope and method to the 1790 census. However, Members of Congress, as well as statisticians and other scholars both within and outside the Federal Government, urged that while the populace was being canvassed, other information the new Government needed should be collected The first inquiries on manufacturing were made in 1810 and, in later decades, censuses of agriculture, mining, governments, religious bodies (discontinued after 1936, business, housing, and transportation were added to the decennial census. (Legislation enacted in 1948 and later years specified that the various economic, agriculture, and government censuses would be taken at times that did not conflict with those in which the population and housing censuses occurred) The census of 1820 covered the subject of population in somewhat greater detail than the preceding one. This census is notable for having obtained, for the first time, the numbers of inhabitants engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing.

The 1830 census related solely to population, but its scope concerning this subject was extended substantially. The marshals and their assistants began using uniform printed schedules; before that, they had to use whatever paper was available, rule it, write in the headings, and bind the sheets together.

The census act for 1840 authorized the establishment of a centralized census office during each enumeration and provided for the collection of statistics pertaining to "the pursuits, industry, education, and resources of the country." The new population inquiries included school attendance, illiteracy, and type of occupation.

Through the census of 1840, the household, rather than the individual, was the unit of enumeration in the population census, and only the names of the household heads appeared on the schedules. There was no tabulation beyond the simple addition of the entries the marshals had submitted, and there was no attempt to publish details uniformly by cities or towns, or to summarize returns for each State, other than by county, unless the marshals had done so.

Census Expansion:
The act which governed the taking of the Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Decennial Censuses (1850-1870) made several changes in census procedures:

Each marshal was responsible for subdividing his district into "known civil divisions," such as counties, townships, or wards, and for checking to ensure that his assistants' returns were completed properly. The number of population inquiries grew; every free person's name was to be listed, as were the items relating to each individual enumerated For the first time, in 1850, the marshals collected additional "social statistics" (information about taxes, schools, crime, wages, value of estate, etc.) and data on mortality. Decennial mortality schedules for some States and territories exist for 1850-1880 and for a few places in 1885; (you are referred to see page 12 for text and location of records)

1860 population breakdown:
WHITE = 18,810,123
FREE NEGRO = 225,973
SLAVE = 64
TOTAL = 19,034,434

(Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri & New Mexico Territory)
WHITE = 2,743,728
FREE NEGRO = 129,243
SLAVE = 432,586
TOTAL = 3,305,557

WHITE = 5,449,462
FREE NEGRO = 132,760
SLAVE = 3,521,110
TOTAL = 9,103,332

Noteworthy features of the 1870 census were the introduction of a rudimentary tallying device to help the clerks in their work, and the publication of maps, charts, and diagrams to illustrate the most significant census results.

The general scope of the 1880 census was expanded only slightly over that of 1870, but much greater detail was obtained for many of the items -- such detail, in fact, that beyond the basic counts, which were made and released promptly, it took almost until the 1890 census (because of budget constraints) to tabulate and publish some of the 1880 data The census act for 1880 replaced the marshals and their assistants with specially appointed agents (experts assigned to collect technical data, such as on manufacturing processes), supervisors, and enumerators, every one of whom was forbidden to disclose census information. Ever since the first census in 1790, some people had regarded many of the questions as an invasion of privacy, but before the 1880 census, there was no law limiting the extent to which the public could use or see the information on any schedule. (Subsequent demographic and economic censuses, as well as most surveys, have been carried out according to statutes that make compliance mandatory, with penalties for refusal; and responses confidential, with penalties for disclosure. Congress codified these laws in 1954 as Title 13, U.S. Code.) For the first time, enumerators were given detailed maps to follow so they could account for every street or road and not stray beyond their assigned boundaries. The National Archives' Cartographic and Architectural Branch has a collection of these maps.

Again, in 1890, there was a slight extension of the decennial census's scope, and some subjects were covered in even greater detail than in 1880. Data were collected in supplemental surveys on farm and home mortgages and private corporations' and individuals' indebtedness. The 1890 census also used, for the first time in history, a separate schedule for each family. Herman Hollerith, who had been a special agent for the 1880 census, developed punch cards and electric tabulating machines in time to process the census returns, reducing considerably the time needed to complete the clerical work. Hollerith's venture became part of what is now the IBM Corporation. Both the cards and the machines were improved progressively over the next 50 years.

The 1890 census was historic in another way. In the first volume of the results, the Superintendent of the Census wrote these significant words:

Up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be said to be a frontier line. In the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc., it can not, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports.

Commenting on this statement in a classic paper delivered in 1893, one of America's great historians, Frederick Jackson Turner, wrote, "Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of am area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development. The censuses that followed 1890 reflected the filling in rather than the expansion of the colonized areas, and this meant a turning point in American life.

name of the veteran (or if he did not survive, the names of both the widow and her deceased husband); the veteran's rank, company, regiment or vessel, date of enlistment, date of discharge, and length of service in years, months, and days; post office and address of each person listed; disability incurred by the veteran; and remarks necessary to a complete statement of his term of service.

Practically all of the schedules for the States Alabama through Kansas and approximately half of those for Kentucky appear to have been destroyed, possibly by fire, before the transfer of the remaining schedules to the National Archives in 1943.

The censuses that followed 1890 reflected the filling in rather than the expansion of the colonized areas, and this meant a turning point in American life.

Moving into the 20th Century
The 1900 census was limited to those questions asked for all the population in 1890, with only minor changes in content. The period, however, featured the first U.S. censuses outside the continental States and territories.

Following its annexation in 1898, Hawaii (where the local government took a census every 6 years from 1866 through 1896) was included in the 1900 census, which also had the first count of the U.S. population abroad (Armed Forces and Government civilian employees, and their households).

The War Department carried out an enumeration in Puerto Rico in 1899 following that island's acquisition from Spain in 1898 (there were periodic censuses from 1765 to 1887 under Spanish rule), and there have been decennial censuses in the Commonwealth (its status since 1952) from 1910 onward.

The Census Bureau compiled and published one census of the Philippine Islands following their accession by the United States in 1898; this census was taken under the direction of the Philippine Commission in 1903. (Under Spanish rule, there had been censuses in 1818 and 1876. The Philippine legislature directed a census in 1918, and the Commonwealth's statistical office began periodic enumerationís in 1939. The Philippines became an independent republic in 1946.)

The Isthmian Canal Commission ordered a general census of the Panama Canal Zone when the United States took control of the area in 1904; there was another general census in 1912 and several special censuses at various times, but the Canal Zone was included in the U.S. censuses from 1920 to 1970. (Sovereignty over the Zone was transferred to the Republic of Panama in 1979.)

The United States occupied Guam in 1899, and the local governor conducted a census there in 1901 and later years; the island was included in U.S. censuses from 1920 on.

The governors of American Samoa took censuses at various times after U.S. acquisition in 1900, and the population there was enumerated in U.S. censuses from 1920 onward.

In what have been the Virgin Islands of the United States since 1917, the Danish Government took periodic censuses between 1835 and 1911; there was a Federal census in 1917, and the islands appeared in the 1930 and subsequent U.S. censuses.

The Census Bureau took a census of Cuba under a provisional U.S. administration there in 1907; there were earlier censuses under Spanish rule (which ended m 1898), then a U.S. War Department enumeration in 1899, and subsequent ones under the Republic (established in 1901) beginning in 1919.

Later in the 20th century, the decennial census reports included figures for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. There had been quinquennial Japanese censuses in these islands from 1920 to 1940; the U.S. Navy enumerated in 1950, and the U.S. High Commissioner carried out the 1958 census (the results of which appeared in the 1960 U.S. census). The Census Bureau conducted the 1970 and 1980 censuses; in 1980 and 1990, there was a separate census of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, which had been part of the Trust Territory.

A number of the censuses noted above collected data on agriculture, housing, and economic subjects and included enumerations on isolated islands, such as Truk and Yap, mainly in the Pacific.

In some censuses, there were supplemental questionnaires for American Indians; in 1980, enumerators used these forms only on reservations to collected additional information about households with one or more American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut residents.

From the 1840 through the 1900 censuses, a temporary census office had been established before each decennial enumeration and disbanded as soon as the results were compiled and published. Congress established a permanent Bureau of the Census in 1902 in the Department of the Interior, so there would be an ongoing organization capable of taking frequent censuses throughout the decades instead of concentrating all the work in the years ending in "0." The Bureau moved to the new Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903 and continued with the Commerce Department when the Labor Department was split off in 1913.

The 1910 census had several notable features. First, prospective census employees took open competitive examinations administered throughout the country (since 1880, appointees had been given noncompetitive tests). Second, the way in which results were published was changed. Those statistics that were ready first -- and especially those in greatest demand (such as the total population of individual cities and States, and of the United States as a whole) -- were issued first as press releases, then in greater detail as bulletins and abstracts, the latter appearing 6 months to a year before the final reports were issued.

In 1920 and also in 1930, there were minor changes in scope. A census of unemployment accompanied the 1930 census; data were collected for each person reported to have a gainful occupation but who was not at work on the working day preceding the enumerator's visit.

Name of the head of family; profession or occupation; number of free white males in the household of 16 years and up (to assess the country's industrial and military potential); number of free white males under 16; number of free white females; number of all other free persons (by sex and color); number of slaves and sometimes town or district of residence.

1800 & 1810
Name of head of family; number of free white males (followed by females) under 10 years, 10 and under 16, 16 and under 26, 26 and under 45, 45 and up; all other free white persons except Indians not taxed; number of slaves.

Name of head of family; number of free white males (followed by females), same age categories as 1800, plus free white males between 16 and 18 years (which can result in a double-count); number of foreigners not naturalized; number of persons engaged in Agriculture, Commerce, and Manufactures; male and female slaves and free colored persons under 14 years, 14 and under 26, 26 and under 45, and 45 and up; all other free persons, except Indians not taxed.

Name of head of family; number of free white males (followed by females) in 5-year age groups to 20, 10-year age groups from 20 to 100, and 100 years old and over. For each household: number of slaves and free colored persons in six broad age groups (males and females, under 10, 10 and under 24, 24 and under 36, 36 and under 55, 55 and under 100, over 100); number of deaf and dumb (under 14, 14 to 24, and 25 years and up); number of blind; number of foreigners not naturalized.

Name of head of family; number of free white males (followed by females) in same age groups as 1830. For each household: number of slaves and free colored persons in same groups as 1830; number of persons in each family employed in each of seven classes of occupations (mining, agriculture, commerce, manufactures and trades, navigation of the ocean, and navigation of canals, lakes and rivers); number of pensioners for Revolutionary or military service and their ages; number of white persons deaf and dumb (same groups as 1830), blind, the insane and idiots (at public charge and at private charge); number of colored persons deaf and dumb, blind, the insane and idiots (at public charge and at private charge); type of schools and number of scholars; number of white persons over 20 who could not read and write.

Names; age; sex; color (white, black or mulatto) for each person; profession, occupation, or trade for each male person over 15; all free persons required to give value of real estate owned; place of birth of each person; whether married within the year; whether attended school within the year; whether unable to read and write for persons over 20; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic, pauper or convict. Supplemental schedules for slaves. For each owner: slave's age; sex; color (B, M); fugitive from the state; number manumitted; deaf, dumb or idiotic.

Name; age; sex; color; occupation as for 1850; value of real estate; value of personal estate (personal property); place of birth; whether married within the year; whether attended school within the year; for persons 20 years old and over whether able to read and write; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic, pauper, or convict. Supplemental schedules for slaves. For each owner: slave's age; sex; color (B, M); fugitive from the state; number manumitted; deaf, dumb or idiotic; number of slave houses.

Name; age last birthday; sex; color; occupation; value of real estate; value of personal estate; place of birth; whether father was foreign born; whether mother was foreign born; month of birth if born within the year; month of marriage if married within the year; whether attended school within the year; literacy; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic; male citizens 21 and over; number of males over 21 with right to vote.

Address; name; color, sex, age prior to June 1st; month of birth if born in census year; relationship to head of family; marital status; whether married within the year; profession, occupation or trade; number of months unemployed; whether person is sick or temporarily disabled so as to be unable to attend to ordinary business or duties; if so, what is the sickness or disability; whether blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, crippled or bedridden; whether attended school within the year; ability to read and write; place of birth of person, father, and mother. Soundex indexing available for all states but it is very limited in that it only indexed families that contained children under the age of ten. If the child was not a child of head of house hold, he and the family were indexed on separate cards.

Nearly all of the general schedules were destroyed by fire in the Commerce Department Building in Jan 1921. Schedules for small parts of Alabama, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas remain. Content was similar to that of the 1900 census. Supplemental schedules for Union veterans of the Civil War and their widows survive for part of Kentucky and the states alphabetically after Kentucky. Soundex not available.

Address (street and house no. in large cities); name; relationship to head of family; color or race (White, Black, CHinese, JaPanese, and INdian); sex; month and year of birth; age at last birthday; marital status (single, married, divorced, widowed); number of years married to present spouse; number of children of wife; number of her children living; place of birth of person and parents (state or country only); citizenship (if foreign born, year of immigration, and number of years in U.S.); citizenship status if over 21 (ALien, PA=declaration of intent filed, NAturalized); occupation for persons age 10 and over; number of months unemployed; whether attended school within the year; education (whether can read, write, and speak English); ownership of home (Owned, Rented); whether a Home or a Farm; and whether Free or mortgaged. Separate schedules were prepared for institutions, military establishments, and Indian reservations. Soundex available for all states.

Address; name of person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910 was in the family; relationship to head of family; sex; color or race; age last birthday; marital status (single, widowed, married, divorced); number of years of present marriage; for women, number of children born and number now living; birthplace of person and parents; if foreign born, year of immigration, whether naturalized, and whether able to speak English, or if not, language spoken; occupation, industry, and class of worker (employer, employee or self-employed); if an employee, whether out of work during year; literacy; school attendance; home owned or rented; if owned whether free or mortgaged; whether farm or house; whether a survivor of Union or Confederate Army or Navy; whether blind in both eyes or deaf and dumb. Soundex available for 21 states: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, NC, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV.

Address; name of each person whose place of abode on January 1, 1920 was in the family including every person living on January 1 and excluding children born since January 1; relationship to head of family; whether home is owned or rented; if owned, whether free or mortgaged; sex; color or race; age at last birthday; marital status; if foreign born, year of immigration to the U.S., whether naturalized, and year of naturalization; whether attended school since September 1, 1919; whether able to read and write; birthplace and mother tongue of person and parents; ability to speak English; occupation; industry, and whether employer or employee. Soundex available for all states.

State wide indexes are available for every federal census from 1790 through 1850 and for many of the 1860 and 1870 federal censuses. Soundex indexes are available for the 1880 and 1900 census and for eleven states for the 1910 census. There are Mortality Schedules for 1850 through 1880 which list those who died in the 12 months preceeding the census. There are state wide indexes available for these Mortality Schedules.

All census records are regarded as "private" for 72 years from the census date. In other words, there could still be living persons on that census. Since the 1930 Census was taken on April 1st, it will not be released until April 1, 2002. There is no soundex for the 1930 Census.
New questions added to the 1930 Census were - a person's age at their first marriage, amount of rent or mortgage payment (monthly), if the household had a radio. They did not ask the number of children or number of marriages.

If you need a census record for proof of age , the Census Bureau provides an "age search" service to the public and will search the confidential records from the Federal population censuses of 1910 to 1990 and issue an official transcript of the results for a fee of $40.00 (personal check or money order). NOTE: Information can be released only to the named person, his/her heirs, or legal representatives. Individuals can use these transcripts, which may contain information on a person's age, sex, race, State or country of birth, and relationship to the householder, as evidence to qualify for social security and other retirement benefits, in making passport applications, to prove relationship in settling estates, in genealogy research, etc., or to satisfy other situations where a birth or other certificate may be needed but is not available. The census records are on microfilm and you have to submit a completed BC-600 Application for Search of Census Records, signed by the person for whom the search is to be conducted. Information regarding a child who has not yet reached the legal age of 18 may be obtained by written request of either parent or guardian. A guardian must provide a copy of the court order naming them as such.

Information regarding mentally incompetent persons may be obtained upon these persons may be obtained upon the written request of the legal representative, supported by a copy of the court order naming such legal representation.

Deceased persons - the application must be signed by (1) a blood relative in the immediate family (parent, child, brother, sister, grandparent), (2) the surviving wife or husband, (3) the administrator or executor of the estate, or (4) a beneficiary by will or insurance. IN ALL CASES INVOLVING DECEASED PERSONS, you must provide the death certificate as well as state the relationship to the deceased in the application. Legal representatives MUST also furnish a copy of the court order naming such legal representatives, and beneficiaries MUST furnish legal evidence of such beneficiary evidence.

An official census transcript will list the person's name, relationship to household head, age at the time of the census, and state of birth. Citizenship will be provided if the person was foreign born. Single items of data such as occupation for Black Lung cases can be provided upon request. If a person is not found, a form will be sent with that information.

Additional data on the same person (Full Schedule) The full schedule is the complete one line entry of personal data recorded for that individual ONLY. This will be furnished in addition to the regular transcript. There is an additional charge of $10.00 for each full schedule. They are not available for 1970, 1980, and 1990. It usually takes 3-4 weeks to receive the information.

Reprinted by permission from EXPERT GENEALOGY, by Jeannette Holland Austin at http://www.

In 1920, there is one roll of Soundex film (roll M1605) which covers "various institutions." In addition, almost every state has institutions soundexed on the last Soundex roll, following the "Z" surnames. A research hint in the microfilm catalog states, "Many institutions, even if enumerated at their street addresses, are found at the end of the enumeration district." In 1900, the institutions are on eight rolls of film designated T-1083. In 1880 and 1910, institutions seem to be indexed state by state, following the "Z" surnames.

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